Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1
Other Decks By This User
- Who is Claude Bernard?
- considered father of Physiology.
- What is mileau interne?
- internal environment
- What is physiology? is it energetically costly?
- the process of maintaining homeostasis (balance), yes it is energetically costly.
- Who discovered homeostasis?
- Walter Cannon
- What is negative feedback?
- minimize, diminish, product will feedback to inhibit earlier steps in the process.
- What is positive feedback?
give some examples.
- rare, maximize, speeds up steps in process, labor, precoital sex play, usually going for a set event
- What is prokaryotic?
- bacteria, cell wall and membrane and no nucleus
- What is eukaryotic?
- protozoa, plants, animals, nucleus, much more complex in terms of organelles
- What are the four types of tissues?
- nervous tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and epithelial tissue, blood also used to be considered a tissue
- Describe connective tissues and what kinds there are.
- bone, cartilage- cells spread out separated matrix in btwn. them, flexible,or tight, blood-cells are separated by serum (plasma), cartilage is not usually very vascular
- Describe epithelial tissue.
- arranged in sheets->skin, lining of tubes of the body, 2 sides- 1 side to the inside and 1 side to the external environment
- What are the three major fluid compartments, how are they separated and what is their percent body weights?What makes up the extracellular body fluid?
separated by membranes
extracellular-plama and interstital
- What is the total body weight percent of the body fluids? Intracellular and extracellular individually?
- body fluids-70%
- What are capillaries?
- endothelial cells (w/membrane); separates blood plasma from interstitial fluid
- What is the cell or plasma membrane?
- separates interstitial fluid from intracellular
- The membrane that separates the interstitial fluid and the intracellular fluid is made of what?
- lipid bilayer, with hydrophobic tails and hydrophillic heads
- what are millimoles?
- 1/1000th of a mole
- What are osmoles?
- concentration of particles dissociating from one mole. OsM
- What is the usual unit of particles dissolving in a body?
- milliosmoles- mOsM, 1/1000 osmoles
- How many osmoles are most terrestrial animals?
- 300 mOsM
- What are terrestrial animals with their surroudings? and what does this mean?
- usually physiologically isotonic-meaning they can regulate their salt and water according to their surroundings
- What does isotonic mean?
- same tonicity (relative osmolarity), no net movement of water
- What does hypertonic mean?
- higher tonicity than reference solution,the cells will shrink and crenate, water leaves cells
- What does hypotonic mean?
- lower tonicity than reference solution, the cells will swell and burst, water enters cells
- What is osmotic pressure?
- the force that moves a solvent from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration through a selective permeable membrane
- What is osmosis?
- the movement of a solvent from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration
- What is passive transport?
- requires no energy for transport of getting things in and out of the cell
- What is diffusion?
- the movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from an area from high to low.
- What is facillitated diffusion?
- assisted diffusion without requiring energy
- What is solvent drag and what transport does it belong to?
- when there is a big movement of water it can drag things along with it..and is part of the passive transport
- What is lipid solubility?
- some compounds are soluble in lipids and not water..for ex. lipid soluble vitamins-A, D, E, K
- What are pores and channels?
- various pores and channels that open and let molecules through
- What does semi-permeable mean?
- means that particles will not diffuse
- What is active transport?
- energy used to get things in and out of the cell, and can move against the concentration gradient
- What is endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis?
- exocytosis-way to get things out of the cell,endocytosis -engulfs things,pinocytosis -cell drinking phagocytosis -engulf large things by wrapping in membrane
- What are the types of passive transport?
- diffusion, facilitated diffusion, solvent drag, lipid solubility, and pores and channels, and osmosis
- What are the types of active transport?
- endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, carrier mediated transport
- What is carrier mediated transport?
- requires energy to carry-shuttle across the membrane
- What kind of liquid does the oral cavity have for making food soluble?
- serous-saliva and water mixed
- What is heterodonty?
- different teeth
- What are the types of teeth?
- Incisors, canines, premolars and molars
- What are baby teeth called?
- What are Eustachian tubes?
- two tubes that go to the middle ear and used to equalize pressure in the tympanic membrane.
- Describe the esophagus.
- inner circular smooth muscle, outer longitudinal smooth muscle. mouth to stomach, rough stratified squamous tissue
- What is liquefaction?
- gastric juice is added to the food to make a watery solution called chyme for when it leaves the stomach.
- what does gastric juice, chief cells, parietal cells and mucuous cells produce?
- gsatric juice produces fundus, chief cells produce- pepsin, parietal cells produce HCl, mucuous cells produce alkaline mucus
- What are sphincters?
- controls the entrance and exit of food. makes sure food doesn't reflux back into the esophagus.
- What is the rumen?
- can contain up to 40-50 gallons of material, sacculated with muscle pillars
- What is the reticulum?
- close to the diaphragm, honeycomb, hardware b/c this is where the hardware would drop out
- What is the omasum?
- many plies, many layers taking out water, absorbing water
- What is the abomasum?
- the true stomach that adds enzymes to the food
- What are camelids?
- they lack the omasum, 3 chamber stomach, pseudoruminants
- What is the reticular espophogeal groove?
- channel or groove from the esophagus down towards the reticulum and abomasum
- What is the forestomach?
- the rumen and reticulum
- How many bacteria are in the rumen fluid?
- 10-50 billion per mL
- Is the rumen aerobic or anaerobic and what types of VFA's does it contain?
- anaerobic-lacks oxygen, acetic and butyric
- What is the PH of the rumen and what happens if it drops?
- 6-7, if it drops to 5.5 then there are problems with the Protozoa which help break down carbohydrates
- What are microbes?
- synthesis of proteins from non-protein sources
- What is produced when proteins are synthesized from nonproteins using nitrogen?
- Describe the small intestines.
- receives chyme from stomach and goes from pylorus to large intestines. Duodenum- has the pancreatic and bile ducts at the beginning of small intestines.
- What are the sections of the small intestines?
- duodenum and jejunum-second region of sm. intestines that is where most of the absorption takes place, ileum
- What is the length of the small intestines?
- 3.5 x body length
- What are the functions of the endocrine and exocrine parts of the pancreas?
- endocrine-insulin and glycogen
exocrine-enzymes, and bicarbonate alkaline juice
You must Login or Register to add cards