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Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Ch 3

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Converts energy from nutrients into ATP
Mitochondria

Disgest substances within the cell
Lysosome

Rough- sorts proteins ans forms them into more complex compounds
Smooth- involved in lipid synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

a stack of membranous sacs involved in sorting and modifiying proteins and then packaging them for export from the cell
Golgi apparatus

Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Plasma membrane

Small bodies free in the cytoplasm or atached to the ER that manufacture proteins
Ribosomes
Basic unit of life
Cell
Common type of telescope used today
Compound Light Microscope
Magnifies up to 1 million times
Transmission Electron Microscope
Gives a 3-D image
Scanning Electron Microscope
The part of the cell that regulates what can enter or leave is the...
Plasma Membrane
Control center of the cell that contains the chromosomes and the nucleolus
Nucleus
Small body in the nucleus composed of RNA, DNA, and proteins; makes ribosomes
Nucleolus
Colloidal susension that holds organelles
Cytoplasm
Liquid portion of cytoplasm
Cytosol
Surface organelles used for movement
Cilia and flagellum
Contains sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base
Nucleotide
composed of nucleotides
Nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
Composed of nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
DNA
DNA nucleotide pairing
A-T and C-G
Composed of nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)
RNA
RNA nucleotide pairing
A-U, C-G
Three type of RNA
Messenger- mRNA
Ribosomal- rRNA
Transfer- tRNA
Transcribes the message of the DNA
mRNA
Makes up the ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis
rRNA
Brings amino acids to be made into proteins
tRNA
Located almost entirely in the nucleus; carries the genetic message
DNA
Located in the cytoplasm; translates DNA message into proteins
RNA
Forms sex cells; divides the chromosome number in half
Meiosis
Division of somatic (body) cells; cells divide into two daughter cells
Mitosis
DNA duplicates during this phase of mitosis
Interphase
Chromosomes form and become visible in this phase of mitosis
Prophase
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell attached to the spindle fibers in this phase of mitosis
Metaphase
The centromere splits and the duplicated chromosomes separate and begin to move toward opposite ends of the cell in this phase of mitosis
Anaphase
A membrane appears around each group of separated chromosomes, forming two new nuclei in this phase of mitosis
Telophase
Movement that does not require cellular energy
Passive transport
Molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; lowering the concentration gradient
Diffusion
Diffusion of water through semipermiable membrane
Osmosis
Movement of materials through plasma membrane under mechanical force
Filtration
Movement of materials with aid of transporters in plasma membrane
Facilitated diffusion
Movement that requires cellular energy
Active transport
Movement of bulk amounts of material into the cell in vesicles
Endocytosis
Large particles are engulfed and moed into the cell
Phagocytosis
The cell membrane engulfs droplets of fluid
Pinocytosis
The cell moves materials out in vesicles
Exocytosis
Same concentration as cell fluids; cells remain the same
Isotonic solution
Lower concentration than cell fluids; cell swells
Hypotonic solution
Higher concentration than cell fluids; cell shrinks
Hypertonic solution
Alteration of the genes that is a natural occurence in the process of cell division
Mutation
Programmed cell death
Apoptosis
Cancer risk factors
Heredity
Chemicals
Ionizing Radiation
Physical irritation
Diet
Viruses
Distinct segments of DNA that code for specific proteins are called...
Genes
The cytosol and organelles make up the...
Cytoplasm
In which phase does DNA duplication take place?
Interphase
In which phase is DNA tightly wound into chromosomes?
Prophase
In which phase do the chromosomes line up along the cell's equator?
Metaphase
In which phase do the chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell?
Anaphase
In which hase does the cell membrane pinch off, dividing the cell into two new daughter cells?
Telophase
The main component of the plasma membrane
Phospholipids
ATP is synthesized in the...
Mitochondria
Transcription of the DNA strand TGAAC would produce an mRNA strand with the squence...
ACUUG
Somatic cells divide by the process called...
Mitosis
Movement of solute from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration is called...
Diffusion

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