Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Ch 3
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Converts energy from nutrients into ATP
Disgest substances within the cell
Rough- sorts proteins ans forms them into more complex compounds
Smooth- involved in lipid synthesis
- Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
a stack of membranous sacs involved in sorting and modifiying proteins and then packaging them for export from the cell
- Golgi apparatus
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
- Plasma membrane
Small bodies free in the cytoplasm or atached to the ER that manufacture proteins
- Basic unit of life
- Common type of telescope used today
- Compound Light Microscope
- Magnifies up to 1 million times
- Transmission Electron Microscope
- Gives a 3-D image
- Scanning Electron Microscope
- The part of the cell that regulates what can enter or leave is the...
- Plasma Membrane
- Control center of the cell that contains the chromosomes and the nucleolus
- Small body in the nucleus composed of RNA, DNA, and proteins; makes ribosomes
- Colloidal susension that holds organelles
- Liquid portion of cytoplasm
- Surface organelles used for movement
- Cilia and flagellum
- Contains sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base
- composed of nucleotides
- Nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
- Composed of nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
- DNA nucleotide pairing
- A-T and C-G
- Composed of nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)
- RNA nucleotide pairing
- A-U, C-G
- Three type of RNA
- Messenger- mRNA
- Transcribes the message of the DNA
- Makes up the ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis
- Brings amino acids to be made into proteins
- Located almost entirely in the nucleus; carries the genetic message
- Located in the cytoplasm; translates DNA message into proteins
- Forms sex cells; divides the chromosome number in half
- Division of somatic (body) cells; cells divide into two daughter cells
- DNA duplicates during this phase of mitosis
- Chromosomes form and become visible in this phase of mitosis
- The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell attached to the spindle fibers in this phase of mitosis
- The centromere splits and the duplicated chromosomes separate and begin to move toward opposite ends of the cell in this phase of mitosis
- A membrane appears around each group of separated chromosomes, forming two new nuclei in this phase of mitosis
- Movement that does not require cellular energy
- Passive transport
- Molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; lowering the concentration gradient
- Diffusion of water through semipermiable membrane
- Movement of materials through plasma membrane under mechanical force
- Movement of materials with aid of transporters in plasma membrane
- Facilitated diffusion
- Movement that requires cellular energy
- Active transport
- Movement of bulk amounts of material into the cell in vesicles
- Large particles are engulfed and moed into the cell
- The cell membrane engulfs droplets of fluid
- The cell moves materials out in vesicles
- Same concentration as cell fluids; cells remain the same
- Isotonic solution
- Lower concentration than cell fluids; cell swells
- Hypotonic solution
- Higher concentration than cell fluids; cell shrinks
- Hypertonic solution
- Alteration of the genes that is a natural occurence in the process of cell division
- Programmed cell death
- Cancer risk factors
- Distinct segments of DNA that code for specific proteins are called...
- The cytosol and organelles make up the...
- In which phase does DNA duplication take place?
- In which phase is DNA tightly wound into chromosomes?
- In which phase do the chromosomes line up along the cell's equator?
- In which phase do the chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell?
- In which hase does the cell membrane pinch off, dividing the cell into two new daughter cells?
- The main component of the plasma membrane
- ATP is synthesized in the...
- Transcription of the DNA strand TGAAC would produce an mRNA strand with the squence...
- Somatic cells divide by the process called...
- Movement of solute from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration is called...
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