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Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology 1

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Created by ap.jewell

Anabolism
Synthetic, Energy requiring reaction whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones
Anatomy
The structure or study of the structure of the body and the relation of its parts to each other

Cardiovascular System Components
Blood, Heart, and blood vessels
Cardiovascular System Functions
-Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and other wastes away from cells.

-Helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of the body fluids

-Blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels



Catabolism
Chemical reactions that break down complex organic compounds into simple ones, with the net release of energy
Digestive System Components
-Organs of gastrointestinal tract, long tube that includes the mouth, pharynx(throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anus

-Also includes Accessory organs that assist in digestive processes, such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Digestive System Functions
-Achives physical and chemical breakdown of food

-Absorbs Nutrients

-Eliminates Solid Wastes



lymphatic system
function: returns proteins and fluid to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease causing microbes
muscular system
produces body movement and generates heat
Endocrine System Components
-Hormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalmus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes) and hormone-producing cells in several other organs
physiology
the study of how body parts function
reproductive system
gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism. gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes
Endocrine System Functions
-Regulates body activities by releasing hormones

-Hormones are chemical messengers transported in the blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ

respiratory system
transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air. helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
Integumentary System Components
-Skin and structures associated with it such as hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands
skeletal system
supports and protects the body. provides a surface for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids
Integumentary System Functions
-Protects the body

-Helps regulate body temperature

-Eliminates some wastes

-Helps make vitamin D

-Detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold







Interstitial Fluid
-Portion of extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissues

-The internal environment of the body

-Also known as intercellular or tissue fluid



metabolism
all the biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including the synthetic reactions and decomposition reaction
Intracellular Fluid
-(ICF) fluid located within cells
plasma
the extracellular fluid found in blood vessels; blood minus the formed elements
Lymph
-Fluid confined in lymphatic vessels and flowing through the lymphatic system until it is returned to the blood
Lymphatic System Components
-Lymphatic fluid or Lymph and vessels

-Also includes spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils

Lymphatic System Functions
-Returns proteins and fluid to blood

-Carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood

-Includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease-causing microbes mature and proliferate



palpation
to examine through touch; to feel
prognosis
a forecast of the probable results of a disorder, outlook for recovery
proton
positively charged atomic subparticle located in the nucleus of an atom
receptor
a body structure that monitors change in a controlled condition and sends input to the controll center
sign
objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure
symptom
subjective changes in the body functions that are not apparent to an observer
Chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water.
Hydrolysis
A tiny negatively charged atom which is located outside of the nucleus.
Electron
An uncharged or neutral atom found within the nucleus.
Neutron
Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers.
Isotopes
Reverses a change in a controlled environment.
Negative Feedback
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Atom
Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of the element
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Auscultation
Examination by listening to sounds in the body
Cation
Negatively charged ion
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction
-When two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule -Water is a product of the reaction
Diagnosis
Distinguishing one disease from another or determining the nature of the disease from signs and symptoms by inspection, palpation, laboratory tests, and other means.
Effector
An organ of the body, either a muscle or a gland, that is innervated by somatic or autonomic motor neurons

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