Glossary of Anatomy and Phys. final
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- What is diastole?
- heart at rest
- What is systole?
- heart contracting
- When the AV valves are open is the ventricle diastole or systole?
- diastole-at rest
- What does the vena cava do?
- bring blood back to the right atrium
- What is between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle?
- semilunar valves
- What causes AV valves to open and close?
- What happens when the right atrium has pressure?
- the AV valves open and the semilunar valves close
- What is a murmur?
- fluttering of the valves-mostly AV valves
- What happens when the ventricles have pressure?
- the semilunar valves open and the AV valves close because of the ventricle systole
- What happens when the heart is in systole?
- it becomes so tight that blood cannot go through
- What are the main functions of the circulatory system?
- Transport and distribute essential substances to the tissues.
Remove metabolic byproducts.
Adjustment of oxygen and nutrient supply in different physiologic states.
Regulation of body temperature.
- What is the apex, base and shape of the heart?
- the apex is the top, the base is the bottom and the shape of the heart is a cone.
- Which is thinner the atria or ventricles and what are auricles?
- atria, auricles are the leaf like structures around the atria
- What is the Os Cardis?
- soft tissue bone near the valves
- Where are the superior and inferior vena cavas?
- superior is cranial;bottom, and the inferior is caudal; top
- During systole is there blood flow?
- no because the heart tightens
- What happens when the ventricle relaxes?
- the lood tries to come back and the semi lunar valves close and the coronary arters opena and the blood goes to the heart
- What are two layers that make up the pericardium? what is it and what does it contain?
- visceral layer underneath the parietal layer, membrane that surrounds the heart and it contains a fluid that reduces friction
- What are the junctions between the cardiac muscle cells called?
- intercalated disks-electrical continuity
- Describe cardiac cells?
- uninucleated, branch and resist tearing (interdiagitate), no connective tissue covering and not innervated (does not supply with nerves)
- What is functional syncitium and which muscle does it affect?
- cardiac muscle, what happens to one cell happens to all; they are connected and able to spread over large areas
- Where does normal heart beat originate?
- in the sino atrial node (SA node)
- What is the SA node called? and what is it?
- the primary pacemaker; it is a collection of cells in the right atrium which spontaneously depolarize
- What happens to reach threshold?
- sodium slowly leaks in and potassium comes out until it is reached to cause the cells to spontaneously depolarize
- What is the secondary pacemaker of the heart? What is the third?
- the AV node, the purkinje
- What is the bundle of His?
- purkinje fibers
- Where is the heart rate modified?
- SA node
- What is the function of the purkinje fibers?
- to protect against premature atrial depolarizations at slow heart rates
- What is the function of the AV node?
- protects against premature depolarizations at high heart rate
- What is an electrocardiographic lead?
- recording electrode or a pair of recording electrodes at a specified location.
- What kind of lining do all vessels have?
- an endothelium lining
- What lining do aorta, arteries and arterioles have?
- elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle
- What lining do veins and the vena cava have?
- elastic connective tissue, some smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
- What is the lining of a capillary?
- What is the lining of a venule?
- endothelium and some fibrous connective tissue
- What is fenestrated?
- leaky or with holes
- What does it mean when it is said that veins and the vena cava are capacitance vessels?
- they can swell very easily
- Does blood pressure increase or decrease to the right atrium?
- Does velocity increase or decrease with a decrease in cross sectional area?
- What percent does systematic circulation of blood take place in the veins and venules, the capillaries and the aorta, arteries and arterioles?
- 67% in veins and venules,
5% in capillaries
11% in aorta, arteries and arterioles
- What percent of blood volume takes place in systematic circulation and what percent of blood volume takes place in pulmonary circulation?
- What percent does pulmonary circulation of blood take place in arteries, capillaries, venules and veins and ventricles?
- arteries, capillaries, venules and veins-4%
- When is the lowest velocity of blood?
- as it goes through the capillary bed
- What is velocity?
- rate of displacement of fluid per time (cm/sec)
- What is flow?
- is volume diplacement per time
- What causes flow?
- pressure differences
- When cross sectional area increases velocity increases or decreases?
- What is poiseuille's equation?
- flow of fluid in cylindrical tubes, laminar flow
- What is the equation in poiseuille's equation?
- flow= (P1-P2)*(radius)^4 * pie
- What is flow directly related to?
- pressure difference between two points (radius)
- What is flow indirectly related to?
- length (friction), viscosity
- If pressure goes down, does flow go down or up? If viscosity or length go up does flow go down or up?
- down, down
- The greater the pressure difference the (faster or slower) the flow?
- What is polycythemia? and how does it affect flow?
- will affect viscosity, and flow will go down
- What is pulse pressure?
- systolic blood pressure-diastolic blood pressure
- What is pulse pressure due to?
- stroke volume, long filling time with slow heart rate in athelete
- What is congestive heart failure or hemorrhage due to?
- low stroke volume and low pulse pressure
- What is mean blood pressure?
- 1/3 pulse pressure + diastolic blood pressure
- What happens during microcirculation?
- at the capillaries there is low blood pressure and flow rate so this is the ideal time for nutrients and wastes to be exchange, there is a major tubing system in the capillaries
- How many miles of capillaries does a human have?
- 60,000 miles which are most closed
- What is the importance of the single layer of endothelium on blood vessels?
- allows water and solutes to mmove but not cells and proteins
- What is colloid osmotic pressure?
- within capillary due to large proteins and molecules; primarily albumin
- What is hydrostatic pressure?
- pressure generate by the heart
- Is there more or less fluid pushed out then taken back?
- How much fluid is pushed out of the arteriol end and how much fluid is pulled back in at the venous end?
- 12 mmHg, and -8mmHg
- What is Edema?
- if there aren't any lymphatics there is a build up of interstitial fluid that is not being put back intot he blood.
- What is the function of the lymphatics?
- absorbs lipids in the small intestines or animals and recovers water and proteins from the blood from the interstitial fluid
- How much flows through the lymph?
- 11 mL per hours
- What happens because of Edema?
- there is excess Interstitial fluid,
increase in capillary permeability, increase in capillary blood pressure, decrese colloid osmotic pressure, block lymph drainage
- When lymph drainage is blocked what is the outcome?
- elephantitis and nematodes
- What happens to circulation if you have diabetes mellitus?
- have poor circulation and go blind in the retina
- How does the sympathetic NS affect blood flow?
- it will clamp down on blood vessels and decrease blood flow
- How does autoregulation effect blood flow in the brain and lung?
- brain; increase hydrogen ions and blood flow
lung-decreased blood flow, picks up O2 and delivers CO2
- What are baroreceptors?
- stretch receptors on the arch of the aorta, carotid sinuses
- What is cardiac output?
- heart rate + stroke volume-how much each ventricle ejects in one beat of the heart
mL per minq
- What is the benefit of excercise?
- your stroke volume increases
- What is a shunt?
- detour or path to keep blood away from the lungs
- What are the two shunts and describe them?
- foramen ovae-between the right and left atria-closes after first week of life,
and the ductus arteriorosus-from pulmonary artery
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