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Glossary of Anatomy Vocab Exam 1

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premature, pathological death of tissue
necrosis
enlargement of preexisting cells
hypertrophy
programmed cell death
apoptosis
shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number
atrophy
sudden death of tissue which occurs when its blood supply is cut off
infarction
development of a tumor
neoplasia
vitamin D deficiency, legs bow outward
rickets
long bones of limbs stop growing in childhood while growth of other bones is unaffected
achondroplastic dwarfism
loss of bone due to the imbalance between deposition and resorption
osteopenia
disease in which bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
osteoporosis
abnormal lateral curvature
scoliosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature; hunchback
kyphosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature; swayback
lordosis
branch of medicine that deals with prevention and correction of injuries and disorders of bones, joints, muscles
orthopedics
failure of palatine processes of maxilla to fuse during fetal development, resulting in a fissure connecting oral and nasal cavities
cleft palate
premature closure of cranial sutures within first 2 years of birth resulting in skull asymmetry, deformity, mental retardation
craniosynostosis
abnormal narrowing of vertebral canal or intervertebral foramina caused by hypertrophy of vertebral bone
spinal stenosis
cracking of annulus fibrosis of an intervertebral disc under strain
herniated discs
complete absence of one or more limbs
amelia
partial absence of a limb
meromelia
presence of extra fingers or toes
polydactyly
fusion of 2 or more digits
syndactyly
congenital deformity in which feet are adducted and plantar flexed with soles turned medially
clubfoot (talipes)
abnormal outgrowths of calcaneus
calcaneal spurs

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