Glossary of Anatomy Urinary System Unit 1ppt.
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- Functions of the Urinary System
- 1)Filtration of the blood
2)Reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water
3)secretion of excess materials
4)activation of vitamin D
5)Realease of Erythropoietin by the kidney
6)Release of Renin by the kidney
7)Release of Prostaglandins
8)secretion of H(+1) and reabsorption of HCO3(-1)
- Filtration of the blood occurs where?
- in the glomerulus of the kidney nephron
- Filtration of the blood contributes to what and how?
- homeostasis by removing toxins or waste
- Reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water occur where?
- in most parts of the kidney nephron
- reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water contribute to what and how?
- homeostasis by conserving important materials
- secretion of excess materials does what?
- assists filtration in removing material from the blood
- secretion of excess materials contributes to what and how?
- homeostasis by preventing a buildup of certain materials in the body such as durgs, waste
- Vitamin D made in the _ is converted to vitamin _ by the _
- skin ; Vitamin D3 ; kidney
- D3 is what?
- active Vitamin D
- Active Vitamin D does what and how?
- assists homeostasis by increasing calcium absorption from the digestive tract
- the release of Erythropoietin does what?
- stimulates new RBC production
- New RBC's assist what and how?
- homeostasis by insuring adequate Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transport
- The release of renin by the kidney stimulates what?
- the formation of a powerful vasoconstrictor called Angiotensin II
- Angiotensin II asissts in homeostasis how?
- by causing vasoconstriction whcih increases blood pressure
- release of prostaglandins does what?
- dilates kindey blood vessels
- dilated blood vessels contribute to homeostasis how?
- by maintaining blood flow in the kindeys
- secretion of H(+1) and reabsorption of HCO3 (-1) does what?
- eliminates excess hydrogen ions and conserves buffer material such as bicarbonate
- How does that contribute to (secretion H and reapsorption of HCO3) homeostasis?
- by controlling acid/base conditions in body fluids
- What's the function of the renal artery
- transports oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidney for filtration
- what's the function of the renal vein?
- transports filtered and deoxygenated blood from the kidney to the posterior vena cava and then the heart
- What's the function of the renal column?
- a passageway located between the renal pyramids found in the medulla and used as a space for blood vessels
- What's the function of the nephron?
- the physiological unit of the kidney used for filtration of blood and reabsorption and secretion of materials
- the capsule?
- the outer membrane that encloses, supports and protects the kidney
- the outer layer of the kidney that contains most of the nephron; the main site of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
- inner core of the kidney that contains the pyramids, columns, papillae, calyces, pelvis, and parts of the nephron not located in the cortex; used for salt, water, and urea absorption
- renal pyramids
- triangular shaped units in the medulla that house the loops of Henle and collecting ducts of the nephron; site for the counter current system that concentrates salt and conserves water and urea
- renal papilla
- the tip of the renal pyramid that releases urine into a calyx
- a collecting sac surrounding the renal papilla that transports urine from the papilla the the renal pelvis
- renal pelvis
- collects urine from all the calyces in the kidney
- transports urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
- Afferent Arteriole
- transports arterial blood to the glomerulus for filtration
- Efferent Arteriole
- transports filtered blood from the glomerulus, through the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta, and to the kidney venous system
- 1)the site for blood filtration; operates as a nonspecific filter, in that, it will remove both useful and non-useful material
- the product of the glomerulus is called _.
- Bowman's Capsule
- a sac that encloses Bowman's Capsule and transfers filtrate from the glomerulus to the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
- Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
- 1)a thick, constantly actively segment of the nephron that reabsorbs most of the useful substances of the filtrate
2)the primary site for secretion
- What substances are absorbed through the tubule and what percent of them?
- sodium (65%), water (65%), bicarbonate (90%), chloride (50%), and glucose (nearly 100%)
- elimination of drugs, waste, and hydrogen ions
- Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle info
- 1)a part of the counter current multiplier
2)freely permeable to water and realtively impermeable to solutes (salt particles) 3)receives filtrate from the PCT, allows water to be absorbed and sends "salty" filtrate on the next segment (saves water and passes the salt)
- Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle info
- 1)a part of the counter current multiplier
2)impermeable to water and actively transports (reabsorbs) salt (NaCl) to the interstitial fluid of the pyramids in the medulla (saves salt and passes the water)
3)the passing filtrate becomes dilute and the interstitium becomes hyperosmotic
- Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)info
- 1)receives dilute fluid from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
2)variable active portion of the nephron
- when _ hormone is present _ is reabsorbed and _ is secreted. _ and _ follow the sodium.
- aldosterone; sodium; potassium; water; chloride
- collecting duct receives fluid from _
- the DCT
- collective duct info
- 1)variably active portion of the Nephron
2)when antidiuretic hormone (ADH)is present, this duct will become porous to water
3) Water from the collecting duct fluid then moves by osmosis into the salty (hyperosmotic) interstitium of the medulla
4) this is the last segment to save water for the body
- peritubular capillaries
- 1)transport reabsorbed materials from the PCT and DCT into kidney veins and eventually back into the general circulation
2) help complete the conservation process (reabsorption) that takes place in the kidney
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