Glossary of Anatomy Test 2 Chap 11

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respiration between the air and the lungs is considered
external respiration
respiration between the blood and the tissues is considered
internal respiration
_ - involved in gas exchange between body tissues and the environment, mainly by _ diffusion
respiratory system, passive
Higher oxygen partial pressure in the environment causes oxygen to move _
into tissues
Lower carbon dioxide partial pressure in the environment causes CO2 to move _
out of tissues
The four factors affecting the rate of diffusion:
- surface area
- distance to target
- resistance of tissue
- partial pressure
The _ the surface area, the _ the opportunity for molecules to move across the respiratory membrane (epithelial surface).
greater, greater
The _ the distance to the target, the _ it takes for the molecules to diffuse.
greater, longer
The _ plays an essential role in respiration in animals larger than 1 mm in diameter.
circulatory system
moist thin amphibian skin _ gas exchange. Thick cornified skin of mammals _ gas exchange.
facilitates, slows
_ – the delivery of oxygen to tissues and the removal of waste products, principally carbon dioxide.
_ – gas exchange between the environment and the blood (i.e. air and the capillaries of the lungs)
external respiration
_ – gas exchange between the blood and body tissues.
internal respiration
_ is also known as breathing
the active process of moving the respiratory medium, water or air, across the exchange surface
not breathing
the movement of blood through organs via capillaries
“The respiratory organs specialize in _ to deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide accumulated during _.”
respiration, perfusion
Properties of Respiratory Media: water is _ dense than air
Properties of Respiratory Media: _ energy is required in water than in air
Properties of Respiratory Media: the oxygen content in water is _ and is _ while the oxygen concentration in air is _ and is _
less than 21%, variable, 21%, constant
respiratory medium flows into mouth , across the respiratory surface and exits the body through an opening other than the mouth
respiratory medium enters AND exits through the same opening
dense capillary beds in the branchial region that serve external respiration.
gills were used for ventilation in _ environments
_ – associated with pharyngeal slits and pouches
Internal gills
_ – filamentous capillary beds in the branchial region that protrude into the surrounding environment.
external gills
Lungs are usually _ and _ to the gut.
paired, ventral
_ – connects the lungs to the outside environment.
The _ regulates the opening into the trachea.
Trachea branches into 2 _ one for each lung.
Bronchi branch into _
finally blind pockets _, are where the respiratory membrane is located and where _ respiration occurs
alveoli, external
_ – volume of “used air” within the respiratory passageways that is not cleared.
dead space
_ – total inhaled volume of air
tidal volume
In humans:
Tidal volume _ ml = _ ml (dead space) + _ ml (fresh air)
500, 150, 350
_ – filled with air that enters via the pneumatic duct (connection to the digestive tract) or with gas secreted into the bladder from capillaries.
gas bladder
connection to the digestive tract in the gas bladder
pneumatic duct
_ – gas bladder used for buoyancy
swim bladder
_ – highly vascularized and used in supplemental respiration.
respiratory gas bladder
Why is a gas bladder not called a lung? The gas bladder is _ to the digestive tract while the lungs are _
dorsal, ventral
Why is a gas bladder not called a lung? There is _ gas bladder while ther are usually _ lung
1, 2
Why is a gas bladder not called a lung? The embryonic origin of the gas bladder and the lungs is the _
_ – supplemental respiration through the skin in either air, water or both media.
cutaneous respiratory organs
_ rely heavily on this type of supplemental respiration.
Accessory Air-Breathing organs (3)
digestive tract
reinforced gills
Each of the Accessory Air-Breathing organs is highly _ and air can be held against the respiratory membrane until diffusion has occurred
exchange gases via the placenta. (embryos breath amnionic fluid to exercise their muscles and are born with approximaly 1/3 of the tidal volume filled with fluid)
placental amniotes
exchange gas through the porous shell via the chorioallantois membrane.
shelled amniotes
This highly vascularized membrane adheres to the shell and sends vessels to the embryo for internal respiration
used by small aquatic animals with minimal respiratory requirements (e.g., amphioxus).
Air-breathing animals still use cilia, but mostly for _ the respiratory tract.
is a respiratory secretion that decreases the surface tension of the respiratory membrane to maintain maximum surface area.
swimming motion drives water into the mouth and through the respiratory organs. (e.g., some sharks)
ram ventilation
2 muscular pumps are involved in moving water through the respiratory tract.
dual pump; water ventilation
water ventilation is _
the muscles of the mouth cause water to move in or out
buccal pump
muscular pump external to the gills
opercular pump
used by air-breathing fish and amphibians
Buccal pump (air ventilation)
2-stroke pump: Stroke 1
open mouth and expanded buccal cavity draws fresh air into the mouth where is mixes with used air from the lungs.
2-stroke pump: Stroke 2
closed mouth and contracted buccal cavity forces the mixed across the respiratory membranes of the lungs (excess escapes through the nares).
4-stroke pump: exhalation
Stroke 1 (expansion 1)
buccal cavity expands drawing air from the lungs into the mouth.
4-stroke pump: exhalation
Stroke 2 (compression 1)
contraction of the buccal cavity forces air out of the body.
4-stroke pump: inhalation
Stroke 3 (expansion 2)
buccal cavity expands drawing air into the mouth from outside the body
4-stroke pump: inhalation
Stroke 4 (compression 2)
contraction of the buccal caivity forces air into the lungs
_ pressure may aid respiration for air-breathing fish.
_ : air is “sucked” in by the low pressure created around the lungs
Aspiration pump (air ventilation)
Aspiration pump: The lungs are “_” the pump (muscular _).
within, diaphragm and ribs
Aspiration pump (air ventilation): _ movement of air
buccal cavity does not function in respiration and is therefore “_” from feeding and respiration.
Phylogeny: Agnathans:
Ventilation occurs via muscular pumps (velum) and the branchial aparatus.
Usually unidirectional
When feeding, ventilation occurs tidally (in and out of the gill slits).
Partition divides the pharynx into dorsal esophagus and ventral water channel.
Phylogeny: Elasmobranchs:
Ventilation is a dual pump apparatus (buccal pump and parabranchial pump.
Parabranchial pump is lateral to the gills and formed by the closer of the gill flaps.
Phylogeny: Osteichthyans:
Ventilation is dual pump
The more structurally sound operculum replaces the parabranchial pump from sharks and forms the second chamber/pump
Phylogeny: Amphibians:
The skin is the major respiratory organ (the exclusive respiratory organ in some species)
Ventilation depends on the pumping movements of the throat to irrigate the gills or fill the lungs.
Faveoli are internal subdivisions of the lung wall that open into a central chamber. Capillaries located in the thin walls of the faveoli take up oxygen and give up carbon dioxide.
Phylogeny: Reptiles:
Paired lungs and tidal ventilation meet the respiratory needs of most reptiles
Phylogeny: Mammals:
Ventilation is tidal and involves the ribcage and diaphragm
Ductwork (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, etc).
- _ respiratory surface).
Lungs (paired)
right lung (_)
left lung (_)
3 lobes
2 lobes
Muscular partition at the posterior of the pleural cavity.
diaphragm composed of 4 elements:
septum transversum
pleuroperitoneal membranes
dorsal mesentary of esophagus
body wall masculature
Inhilation: _ muscles contract and rotate the ribs and sternum UP, thus _ the rib cage and the pleural space.
external intercostals
Inhilation: The diaphragm _ and pulls down on the pleural cavity.
Inhilation: diaphragm creates a _ pressure outside the lungs and “sucks” air in.
Exhalation: Relaxation of the _ and _ helps to lower the rib cage and cause exhalation, but under strenuous conditions, active exhalation is needed.
external intercoastals, gravity
Exhalation: _ muscles contract and pull the ribs and sternum down, making the pleural space _
internal intercoastals, smaller
Exhalation: The diaphragm _
Exhalation: The diaphragm relaxing returns the cavity to a _ pressure and forces air from the lungs.

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