Glossary of Anatomy Semester 1 Exam

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Groups of cells that have a common function are called
the system that functions in the storage of minerals, such as calcium, is called the ___ system.
The breakdown of ingested foods into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the bloodstream is termed ____.
A control mechanism that responds to a stimulus by decreasing its intensity is called a ____ mechanism.
negative feedback
The body's ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as ____.
the arms are ___ to the chest
The armpit area is called the ___ region.
A cut that is made along the horizontal plane is called a ___ section.
The study of the structure and shape of th body and body parts is called ___.
Which type of section could be used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity/
Which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection?
Distinguish between anatomy and physiology
Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship between each other. Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.
List 5 of the necessary human life fuctions
1. Maintaining boundaries
2. Movement
3. Metabolism
4. Digestion
5. Reproduction
List the five survival needs of humans
1. Nutrients
2. Water
3. Oxygen
4. Body temperature
5. Atmospheric pressure
What is an example of a physiological study?
Drawing blood from laboratory animals to determine their blood sugar levels
What is the order, from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body
1. Chemical level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. Organ system level
6. Organismal level
The smallest living unit of all living things is
A cell
The muscular system consists of the
skeletal musucles
The ovary is part of which of the following two systems
Reproductive and endocrine system
Elimination of metabolic wastes from the body is the function of the
urinary system
Which of the following systems is matched most most accurately to the life function it provides?
nervous system - responsiveness
Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system
1. Stimulus
2. Receptor
3. Afferent pathway
4. Control center
5. Efferent pathway
6. Effector
7. Response
Negative feedback systems
operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced
In anatomical position:
the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
What orientation and directional terms have the same meaning (in humans)
anterior and ventral
Which orientation terms have opposite meanings?
superficial and deep
What is an anterior body landmark?
antecubital region
What is a dorsal body landmark?
scapular region
In describing the relationship between the patellar and femoral regions
the patellar region is distal to the femoral region
In describing the relationship of the thoracic and spinal cavities
the thoracic cavity is ventral to the spinal cavity
In describing the relationship of the lungs to the heart
the lungs are lateral to the heart
the occipital region is the
posterior surface of the head
the region that contains the naval is the
umbilical region
What is true regarding the vertebral, occipital, and buccal regions?
only the vertebral and occipital regions are located dorsally
a section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into right and left parts is called
Epithelial tissue consisting of one layer of cells flattened like fish scales is called a ____ epithelium.
simple squamous
The type of tissue consisting of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix is ___ tissue.
The type of muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily is called ___ muscle.
Goblet cells are found in
simple columnar epithelium
What is not a characteristic of epithelial tissue?
it has a good blood supply within it and is very vascular
what type of cells are found in the air sacs o the lungs
simple squamous
what is not a connective tissue
skeletal muscle
the epithelial tissue found in areas subject to considerable stretching, such as the urinary bladder, is
what is an increase in size?
the tissue that is usually well vascularized and has an extensive intercellular matrix is called
connective tissue
what is the movement of food through the intestines
blood is a type of ___ tissue
connective tissue
what is the replacement of destroyed tissue?
the epithelial tissue found in areas subject to considerable friction and abuse, such as the esophagus, is __
stratified squamous epithelium
tendons are what kind of tissue?
dense connective tissue
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as
intercalated disks are found in
cardiac muscle tissue only
the type of muscle found int he walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, and in the walls of blood vessels is
smooth muscle
T or F? Stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelial cells
T or F? Under the microscope cardiac muscle cells appear as long, cylindrical cells that are multinucleated and possess obvious striations
T or F? The matrix of hyaline cartilage consists of abundant collagen fibers hidden in a rubbery matrix
T or F? Smooth muscle cells are uninucleated spindle-shaped cells that lack striations
T or F? Bone can also be called osseous tissue
Membrane - lines all body cavities open to the exterior
mucous membrane
membrane - skin
cutaneous membrane
membrane - lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints
synovial membrane
membrane - lines body cavities closed to exterior
serous membrane
membrane - moist and open to secretions such as mucus
mucous membrane
membrane - occurs in pairs
serous membrane
membrane - includes pericardium, peritoneum, and pleura
serous membrane
membrane - made up of connective tissue
synovial membrane
What are four major functions of the skin?
1. Regulates heat loss
2. Insulates and cushions deeper organs
3. Protects body from mechanical damage, chemicals, thermal damage, ultraviolet radiation, and bacteria
4. Synthesizes Vitamin D with sunlight
Outer layer of epidermis
stratum corneum
produces millions of cells daily in the epidermis
stratum basale
pigment produced by skin to block UV radiation
lower skin layer which is tough, but flexible
protein which gives the skin its toughness
causes rosy glow in light-skinned people
oil glands
sebaceous glands
sweat glands
sudoriferous glands
found in axillary and genital regions, produces protein-rich, fatty sweat
apocrine gland
produces hair
hair follicle
part of hair enclosed by follicle
mucles on side of follicle
arrector pili
scalelike modification of epidermis
t/f Melanin and carotene will both help determine skin color
t/f Athlete's foot occurs when there is a homeostatic imbalance of the skin
t/f Burns are never caused by chemicals
t/f The main problems with burns are fluid loss and infection
t/f Second degree burns produce blisters
t/f Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and most dangerous form of skin cancer
t/f Squamous cell carcinoma occurs frequently on the scalp, the ears, the lower lip, and the back of the hand
t/f You should see your doctor if you have a mole that is perfectly round and is of one color because it may be cancerous
Describe what happens to the skin and some of its structure as humans age.
In young people, the skin is well-hydrated and resiliant. As we age, our skin becomes thin and loses elasticity. The thinning makes it easier to bruise and wrinkles appear because it is not as elastic. The hair starts to thin,, causing baldness. Hair also becomes gray.
Describe the rule of nines and give its important.
The rule of nines is important because it estimates the amount of fluid lost from the person due to burns. The body is divided into 11 parts, each making up 9% plus 1% for the pubic area. They then use this to estimate fluid loss.
Skull subdivision
axial skeleton
tibia subdivision
appendicular skeleton
femur subdivision
appendicular skeleton
humerus subdivision
appendicular skeleton
parietal bone subdivision
axial skeleton
ulna subdivision
appendicular skeleton
vertebrae subdivision
axial skeleton
ribs subdivision
axial skeleton
carpals subdivision
appendicular skeleton
3 functions of the skeletal system
Protection, Support, and movement
Four main types of bones
long, short, flat, and irregular
List two causes of joint or bone problems in life
bursitis and arthritis
Bone breaks into many pieces
Broken bone ends are forced into each other
bone breaks incompletely like a twig
bone breaks cleanly, but not through the skin
bone is crushed
broken bone ends protrude through the skin
Describe how the skull of a newborn infant differs from that of an adult
The skull of an infant is 1/4 the total bod length. The skull of an adult is only 1/8 the total body length.
Gibe a function of fontanels.
They allow an infants brain to grow
What is the important of intervertebral disks and the normal curvature of the spine?
The discs cushion the vertebrae. They absorb shock and allow the vertebral colum to have flexibility. The dics and the S-shape vertebral column absorb shock to the head when a person is running or walking and they allow the trunk to be flexible. Primary curvature are present at birth and secondary curvatures develop.
Why is the female pelvis larger and wider than the male pelvis?
There is a larger opening for the birth of a child
Slighty movable joint
Freely movable joint
Allow no movement in the joint
The patellar region is _______ to the popliteal region.
Which of the following activities represents physiological studies
observing the parts of a reproducing cell
Groups of cells that have a common function are termed_____
Anatomy is:
The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts.
Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body:
chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level
The lymphatic system:
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood
The muscular system consists of the:
skeletal muscles
The system that regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood is the:
urinary system
The lymphatic system secretes hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by cells.
The spleen and the tonsils are part of the digestive system.
Which of the following systems is matched most accurately to the life function it provides:
nervous system - responsiveness
The ovary is part of which of the following two systems:
reproductive and endocrine systems
Hematopoeisis is the function of the:
skeletal system

The endocrine system is the fast-acting body control system.
Which of the following is NOT a necessary life function:
Elimination of metabolic wastes from the body is the function of the:
urinary system
The survival need that is required in order to release energy from foods is:
The larynx is an organ of the __________ system.
The force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air is termed __________.
atmospheric pressure
Your body thermostat is located in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Which of the following elements of a control system does this area in the brain represent:
control center
The component of a solution that is present in the largest amount and is called the dissolving medium is the __________.
The fluid that bathes the exterior of cells is called the __________ fluid.
Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens:
a lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material
Which one of the following organelles is studded with ribosomes and carries out protein synthesis:
rough endoplasmic reticulum
After clot formation occurs during the tissue repair process, the next step in the process involves the:
growth of new capillaries into the damaged area forming granulation tissue
The categories of epithelial tissue membranes are:
mucous, cutaneous, and serous membranes
Which of the following relationships is incorrect:
parietal pericardium - covers the outer surface of the heart

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