Glossary of Anatomy Physiology Chapter Review 17
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- 42d. How is water absorbed?
- Water is primarily reabsorbed by osmosis in the proximal convoluted tubule.
- 4. What is the basic anatomic structure and appearance of the Kidney?
- Brownish red, concave and convex shaped.
- 55. What is the capacity of the urinary bladder?
- 600 ml's
- 15. What are the functions of the kidneys?
- This organ regulates BP, pH, and absorption of Ca.
- 23o. Terra Forma?
- 6. What is the renal pelvis?
- The funnel shaped sac of the kidney's.
- 52. What is meant by micturition?
- Urinary reflex, urination, and desire to urinate are described as micturition.
- 3. In terms of vertebrae landmars, where are the kidneys located?
- Located at about the 12th thoracic to 3rd lumbar vertebrae.
- 54. What are the two types of nephrons and what is their function?
- Cortical and juxtamedullary
- 7. What is the hilum?
- The entrance of the renal sinus.
- 51. What 4 layers are found in the wall of the urinary bladder?
- Mucous coat
- 8f. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal pyramids?
- The renal pyramids of the renal medulla form the Renal papillae.
- 23a. Glomerulus?
- Where osmotic pressure of blood plasma is found.
- 8c. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Major calyces?
- Renal pelvis, divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces.
- 41. Cl, HCO3, and PO4 are passively reabsorbed. What does passive reabsorption mean and how does it occur?
- Active transport of Na occurs, and water follows along. Cl, HCO3, and PO4 follow Na along passively due to the opposite chemical charges.
- 8g. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal colunms?
- Outer region of the kidney dips into the renal medulla between the renal pyramids to form the renal colunms.
- 48. What three layers are found in the ureter?
- Mucous coat with transitional epithelium.
Muscular coat (peristalsis).
Fibrous coat (connective tissue).
- 13. What are the masses of tissue located in the renal medulla called and what do they do?
- Composed of masses of tissue called renal pyramids that form the Renal papillae.
- 49. What is the Trigone area of the urinary bladder?
- In the internal floor of the urinary bladder a triangular area.
- 8b. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal pelvis.
- The funnel shaped sac of the kidney. Divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces
- 47. How long are the ureters and where are they attached?
- 25 cm's long, extends from the kidney and joins beneath the urinary bladder.
- 8h. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the nephron?
- The functional units of the kidneys found in the renal cortex (waste eliminator).
- 39. Beginning with Renin, how is Angiotensin-2 formed?
- Angiotensinogen a plasma protein circulating in the blood. This reaction forms
Angiotensin -1 which then reacts with, ACE produced by the pulmonary capillaries forming, Angiotensin - 2
- 12. How many minor calyces per kidney are there in the human?
- The major calyces are divided into 8-14 smaller tubes.
- 50. What are the detrusor muscles?
- The muscular coat of the urinary bladder that have bundles of smooth muscle.
- 8e. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Papillae?
- A series of projections extended into the minor calyces that have openings.
- 38. Where is the Macula Densa located, what does it monitor, and where is renin released?
- distal convoluted tubule comes in closed contact with the afferent and efferent arterioles that supply the kidney, controls Renin release, monitors the concentration of
NA, K, and CI ions
- 16. Where does the renal artery arise from that enters the kidney?
- Arises from the abdominal aorta and enters the kidney at the hilum.
- 42b. How is amino acids absorbed?
- Amino Acids absorbed in PCT by active transport.
- 35. By far, glomerular filtration is most dependent on what factor?
- Hydrostatic pressure
- 17. What are the smaller arteries that the renal artery branch into?
- The renal arteries branch off into the
interlobar arteries branch off into the
branch off into the
arteries branch off into the
afferent arterioles branch off into the
- 42. Where is ADH produced, where is it formed, and what does it do to urinary output, and how does it do this?
- Hypothalamus produces ADH,ADH increases permeability of the DCT and Collecting ducts allowing water to be reabsorbed thereby decreasing urinary output
- 2. How long are and wide are the kidneys?
- 12 cm's long & 6 cm's wide
- 42a. How is glucose absorbed?
- Glucose absorbed in PCT by active transport.
- 1. What are the 4 components of the urinary system?
- 36. If the afferent arteriole is contracted and the efferent is dilated, what will happen to urinary output?
- Contraction of the efferent, or relaxation of the afferent arteriole greatly increases this hydrostatic pressure, increases urinary output.
- 14. What are nephrons and where are they located?
- The functional units of the kidneys found in the renal cortex.
- 37. What two systems are involved in regulation and filtration?
- Sympathetic, renal baroreceptors
- 8d. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Minor calyces?
- The major calyces are divided into 8-14 smaller tubes called the Minor Calyces.
- 45. What is urea and uric acid crystals?
- Contain nitrogen wastes. uric acid is found only in trace amounts in the urine and is in the crystal form
- 8a. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the ureter?
- Extends form the kidney and joins beneath the urinary bladder.
- 39. After Renin is released, what does it react with?
- Angiotensinogen-1 a plasma protein circulating in the blood.
- 10. How many ureters does the human have?
- What substances are secreted by tubular secretion into urine?
- Penicillin, histamine, creatinine, and hydrogen ions are secreted.
- 11. How many major calyces per kidney are in the human?
- Renal pelvis, divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces.
- 21. What is the glomerulus and where is it located?
- Cluster of tiny capillaries, it is surrounded by a sack-like structure called the Bowman's capsule.
- 4. What is the renal sinus?
- The hollow chamber or cavity of the kidney.
- 23e. Ascending loop of Henle?
- Distal convoluted tubule.
- 9. What are the medulla and cortex of the kidney?
- Cortex-The outer region of the kidney.
Medulla-The inner region of the kidney.
- 28. What are juxtaglomerular cells, what is their function, and what do they secrete?
- 54. What are the two types of nephrons?
- Cortical and juxtamedullary
- 34. What is osmosis and how is osmotic pressure increased?
- When a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration.
The higher solute concentration, the higher the osmotic pressure.
- 52. How is sodium reabsorbed?
- Active transport
- 40. What is Atrial Atriuretic Factor?
- Hormone released by the atria in response to increased stretching due to increased blood volume.
- 58. How long is the male urethra?
- Prostatic-2.5 cm's
- 29. What is the peritubular capillary system?
- Efferent arteriole surrounds proximal and distal c. tubules.
- 50. What are the two main functions of the nephron?
- Removes waste products from blood, regulates water and electrolyte concentration.
- 18. How many nephrons are there in each kidney?
- 1 million nephrons in the kidneys.
- 51. How much is filtered per day out into Bowman's capsule?
- 45 gallons per day, or about 125 ml's per minute.
- 33. What two factors oppose filtration out of the glomerulus?
- Osmotic pressure
- 58. How long is the female urethra?
- 4 cm's long
- 27. What is the macula densa & where is it found?
- The region where juxtaglomerular apparatus and afferent/efferent arterioles come in contact.
- 55. What is the function of Aldosterone and where is it located?
- Released from the adrenal glands and slows down Na excretion.
- 23h. Papillary duct?
- short ducts that open on the tip of the renal papillae. They are formed by the union of the straight collecting tubules.
- 56. At what volume does the desire to urinate begin?
- 150 ml's
- 26. What is the juxtaglermerular apparatus & what is it composed of and where is it found?
- Controls the blood flow through the kidney. Renin is released when blood pressure drops.
- 53. How does the kidney help regulate pH?
- Hydrogen ions are secreted by active transport.
- 20. What does the renal corpuscle consist of?
- Clusters of tiny capillaries called a glomerulus.
- 25. What are pedicels, what do they form?
- Tiny processes on the podecytes that form openings called split pores.
- 24. What are podecytes, where are they found?
- Found on the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule and proximal convoluted tubule. Form a network, form split pores.
- 31. What are the three processes of urine formation?
- Glomerular filtration
- 30. What are vasi recti?
- Peritubular capillary system connects with the tubules themselves which are called VASI RECTI.
- 19. What is the nephron made up of?
- Renal corpuscle and renal tubule.
- 23i. Minor calyx?
- Papillary duct which empties into a minor calyx.
- 32. What are the fenestrae and where are they found?
- Holes contained inside the glomerular capillaries and help the filtration process.
- 53. Where are the internal and external urethral sphincters located and which one is voluntary?
- The voluetary skeletal muscle located about 3 cm's from the bladder.
- 23m. Urinary Bladder
- 22. What is the Bowman's capsule, where is it located, what is its function?
- Bowman's capsule is like a funnel that drains into the proximal convoluted tubule.
- 42c. How is albumin absorbed?
- Albumin protein in PCT by pinocytosis into brush border which is then broken down into Amino Acids.
- 41. What is the function of the peritubular capillary system?
- Tubular Reabsorption
- 46. What causes gout?
- Increased uric acid concentration.
- 43. Describe the counter-current mechanism seen in the loop of Henle.
- ascending and descending loops lie very close to each other. The epithelium of the ascending loop is very thick, juxtamedullary nephrons. The descending loop is surrounded by hypertonic fluid.
- 23g. Collecting duct?
- Many collecting ducts join together, forming a papillary duct which empties into a minor calyx.
- 23d. Decending loop of Henle?
- Proximal convoluted tubule.
- 23n. Urethra?
- Contains numerous urethral (mucus) glands.
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