Glossary of Anatomy Physiology BIO-163 10-11

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Regeneration of nerve fibers is more likely to occur in what area?
Peripheral nervous system.
The posterior cavity of the eyeball is filled with a jelly-like substance called?
Vitreous humor
Tree-like pattern seen in a cross section of the cerebellum is referred to as?
Arbor Vitae
RNA contains all but which of the following base nucleotides?
The nerous system has three basic functions. What are they?
The color portion of the eye is known as?
What is true concerning cell membrane of nerve cell fibers during polarized state?
Sodium is found predominantly outside the cell membrane when polarized. Potassium is found mostly on the inside of the cell membrane when polarized.
Which portion of the retina produces the sharpest vision?
Fovea centralis
Roughly 75% of all neuron cell bodies are found?
In the cerebral cortex.
What photoreceptors are sensitive to color?
What portion of the meninges attaches directly to the brain and spinal cord? (Contains many nerves and blood vessels)
Pia matter
What is the last step in cellular respiration?
Where are the oldfactory receptors located?
Superior nasal concha
Glucose--->pyruvic acid + coenzyme-a ---->___________?
About how many ml's of cerebrospinal fluid are present in the normal adult at any one time?
140 mls
What is the name of Cranial nerve X (10)?
What is a selective gateway for certain sensory impulses originating from other parts of the nervous system?
What cranial nerve innervates most of the organs found within the abdominal and thoracic cavities?
X - 10th
The cell body of a neuron is known as the?
The Vestibulocochlear nerve is which cranial nerve?
VIII - 8th
What transmits impulses to the neuron cell body?
What portion of the brain is involved in interpreting impulses involved in the sense of dynamic equilibrium?
The circular opening in the center of the iris is called the?
Cartilage cells are found in chambers known as?
The organs of dynamic equilibrium are located in which of the following portions of the inner ear?
Semicircular canals
Contained in the membranous labyrith of the utricle and saccule is a patch of hair-cells and supporting cells called?
Which structure is located just above the cilia making up the receptors of the sense of hearing?
Tectoral membrane
What structure contains the sensory hairs involved in dynamic equilibrium?
The fluid contained between the osseous and membranous labyrith is called?
DNA is different from RNA in what way?
DNA is double stranded.
DNA has a deoxyribose sugar.
Which pigments are most sensitive to red light?
The function of a fibroblast is?
Is to produce both yellow and white fibers.
What is the upper compartment of the cochlea that leads from the oval window to the apex of the choclear spiral?
Scala vestibuli
What does oxygen do in the last step of the Kreb's cycle?
It is the final electron acceptor and Hydrogen proton acceptor forming water.
Which ossicle attaches to the eardrum?
What substance is found within the gelatinous material of the otolithic membrane?
Calcium carbonate crystals
How many cranial nerves are involved in transmitting impulses associated with taste?
Rhodopsin is the visual pigment contained within rods. Upon exposure to light, it breaks down into?
What is the sensitive portion of the taste bud receptor cells?
Taste hairs
What color pigments are sensitive to blue light waves?
In addition to the 4 primary taste receptors which are also thought to exist?
The brain contains about how many neurons?
100 billion
How many spinal nerves are there?
The inner ear is a complex system of intercommunicating chambers and tubes called?
What are the layers of the meninges?
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
Dura mater
What forms the deep bridge of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres?
Corpus callosum
When two or more impulses are added together to generate an impulse this is referred to as?
The innermost portion of the Schwann cell as it wraps around an axon is termed?
Myelin sheath
What neuroglial cells phagocytize foreign materials such as bacteria in the nervous system?
The nervous system consists of?
Blood vessels
Nerve Cells
The space between the cornea and the lens which provides nutrients and maintains the shape of the front of the eye and contains fluid is?
Aqueous humor
Where are neurotransmitters normally stored?
At the ends of axons in vesicles (boutons).
The centers for controlling vomiting, sneezing, coughing, and swallowing are found in?
Medulla oblongata
What neurotransmitter is secreted by the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system?
On the underside of the brain the optic nerves cross. This area is called?
Optic Chiasma
Where is the tentorium cerebelli found?
Between the occipital lobes and the cerebellum.
There are about 10,000 taste buds located on the human tongue which contain how many taste cells each?
Where is the vestibule located?
Between the cochlea and semicircular canals.
A series of interconnected cavities located within the cerebral hemispheres & the brain stem are?
As a person moves from a lower to a higher altitude what is true about the tympanic membrane?
It is forced outward toward the auditory canal.
Functions of the cerebrospinal fluid include?
Provide nutrients to internal nervous system structure.
Pathway for metabolic waste products back into blood.
What has dendrites that have rounded knobs covered with cilia at their distal ends?
Olfactory receptors
What area of the brain controls blood pressure, temp, sleep, wakefullness, and secretes more hormones than any other structure?
Which neuropeptides transmit pain impulses?
Light touch and heavy pressure senses use which types of receptors?
Meisner's corpuscles
Pacinian corpuscles
What is the only neuroglial cell found in the perepheral nervous system?
Schwann Cells
Lobes of the cerebrum include?
Neurons that have many dendrites and only one axon are termed?
Short term memory is thought to be the result of?
Electrical activity and chemical activity.
What is the large mass of brain tissue located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and posterior to the ponds and medulla oblongata?
Following the passage of a nerve impulse the stimulus will not trigger an impulse regardless of strenght of stimulus applied this is referred to as?
Absolute refractory period.
When sodium ions rush inside the membrane of a cell causing the inside of the cell membrane to become + charged what is this referred to as?
The autonomic nervous system is part of the _______ system that functions independently without conscious effort.
What connects various regions of the brain with each other?
Association areas
What is the largest portion of the brain?
Between the adjacent Schwann cells are gaps or spaces were they do not touch what are these spaces called?
Nodes of Ranvier
The taste and smell receptors are examples of what type receptors?
What neurotransmitter is secreted by both the pre and postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system?
What sdtructures contains the visual receptor cells?
The insula is also known as?
Island of Reil
What cells produce myelin sheaths in the Central Nervous System?
How many ventricles are found in the adult brain?
What is the functions of Neuroglial cells (glial cells)?
Produce growth factors.
Remove excess ions that accumulate between neurons.
Possible send and receive sensory impulses.
Venous blood returning from the brain is first collected in which structure?
Dural sinuses
What are the primary taste receptors?
How would you describe the autonomic nervous system?
Voluntary or Involuntary
Unmyelinated nerve tissue appears?
Gray in color
A nerve impulse being transmitted jumps across the Nodes of Ranvier. What type of conduction is this?
Which is the largest of the ventricles in the brain?
What portion of the brain provides the higher brain functions such as voluntary muscular movement, memory, and reasoning?
The first pair of cranial nerves, the oldfactory nerves are associated with?
The ucus membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and folds back to cover the anterior surface of the eyeball is?
Between the arachnoid and pia maters is a subarachnoid space that contains?
Cerebrospinal fluid
When the stimulus threshold has been met and an impulse is being carried, this is referred to as?
Action Potential
The vestibule is composed of what chambers located within the membranous labyrinth?
Afferent neurons are called?
What sensory receptors responds to pressure changes such as blood pressure?
Sensory areas for pain, touch, temp, pressure, are located in what region of the brain?
Which structures connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
What neuroglial cells metabolize glucose and may actually transfer nutrients from blood to the neurons?
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there in humans?
A single neuron may receive impulses from two or more nerve fibers from different areas of the brain this is called?
The autonomic nervous system includes what branches?
Systomatic and parasympathetic.
The primary motor areas of the brain are located in which lobe of the cerebrum?
Frontal lobe
A shallow groove is called a?
What is the function of sensory neurons?
They carry sensory info from the various body parts to the CNS.

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