Glossary of Anatomy Physiology BIO-163 10-11
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- Regeneration of nerve fibers is more likely to occur in what area?
- Peripheral nervous system.
- The posterior cavity of the eyeball is filled with a jelly-like substance called?
- Vitreous humor
- Tree-like pattern seen in a cross section of the cerebellum is referred to as?
- Arbor Vitae
- RNA contains all but which of the following base nucleotides?
- The nerous system has three basic functions. What are they?
- The color portion of the eye is known as?
- What is true concerning cell membrane of nerve cell fibers during polarized state?
- Sodium is found predominantly outside the cell membrane when polarized. Potassium is found mostly on the inside of the cell membrane when polarized.
- Which portion of the retina produces the sharpest vision?
- Fovea centralis
- Roughly 75% of all neuron cell bodies are found?
- In the cerebral cortex.
- What photoreceptors are sensitive to color?
- What portion of the meninges attaches directly to the brain and spinal cord? (Contains many nerves and blood vessels)
- Pia matter
- What is the last step in cellular respiration?
- Where are the oldfactory receptors located?
- Superior nasal concha
- Glucose--->pyruvic acid + coenzyme-a ---->___________?
- About how many ml's of cerebrospinal fluid are present in the normal adult at any one time?
- 140 mls
- What is the name of Cranial nerve X (10)?
- What is a selective gateway for certain sensory impulses originating from other parts of the nervous system?
- What cranial nerve innervates most of the organs found within the abdominal and thoracic cavities?
- X - 10th
- The cell body of a neuron is known as the?
- The Vestibulocochlear nerve is which cranial nerve?
- VIII - 8th
- What transmits impulses to the neuron cell body?
- What portion of the brain is involved in interpreting impulses involved in the sense of dynamic equilibrium?
- The circular opening in the center of the iris is called the?
- Cartilage cells are found in chambers known as?
- The organs of dynamic equilibrium are located in which of the following portions of the inner ear?
- Semicircular canals
- Contained in the membranous labyrith of the utricle and saccule is a patch of hair-cells and supporting cells called?
- Which structure is located just above the cilia making up the receptors of the sense of hearing?
- Tectoral membrane
- What structure contains the sensory hairs involved in dynamic equilibrium?
- The fluid contained between the osseous and membranous labyrith is called?
- DNA is different from RNA in what way?
- DNA is double stranded.
DNA has a deoxyribose sugar.
- Which pigments are most sensitive to red light?
- The function of a fibroblast is?
- Is to produce both yellow and white fibers.
- What is the upper compartment of the cochlea that leads from the oval window to the apex of the choclear spiral?
- Scala vestibuli
- What does oxygen do in the last step of the Kreb's cycle?
- It is the final electron acceptor and Hydrogen proton acceptor forming water.
- Which ossicle attaches to the eardrum?
- What substance is found within the gelatinous material of the otolithic membrane?
- Calcium carbonate crystals
- How many cranial nerves are involved in transmitting impulses associated with taste?
- Rhodopsin is the visual pigment contained within rods. Upon exposure to light, it breaks down into?
- What is the sensitive portion of the taste bud receptor cells?
- Taste hairs
- What color pigments are sensitive to blue light waves?
- In addition to the 4 primary taste receptors which are also thought to exist?
- The brain contains about how many neurons?
- 100 billion
- How many spinal nerves are there?
- The inner ear is a complex system of intercommunicating chambers and tubes called?
- What are the layers of the meninges?
- Arachnoid mater
- What forms the deep bridge of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres?
- Corpus callosum
- When two or more impulses are added together to generate an impulse this is referred to as?
- The innermost portion of the Schwann cell as it wraps around an axon is termed?
- Myelin sheath
- What neuroglial cells phagocytize foreign materials such as bacteria in the nervous system?
- The nervous system consists of?
- Blood vessels
- The space between the cornea and the lens which provides nutrients and maintains the shape of the front of the eye and contains fluid is?
- Aqueous humor
- Where are neurotransmitters normally stored?
- At the ends of axons in vesicles (boutons).
- The centers for controlling vomiting, sneezing, coughing, and swallowing are found in?
- Medulla oblongata
- What neurotransmitter is secreted by the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system?
- On the underside of the brain the optic nerves cross. This area is called?
- Optic Chiasma
- Where is the tentorium cerebelli found?
- Between the occipital lobes and the cerebellum.
- There are about 10,000 taste buds located on the human tongue which contain how many taste cells each?
- Where is the vestibule located?
- Between the cochlea and semicircular canals.
- A series of interconnected cavities located within the cerebral hemispheres & the brain stem are?
- As a person moves from a lower to a higher altitude what is true about the tympanic membrane?
- It is forced outward toward the auditory canal.
- Functions of the cerebrospinal fluid include?
Provide nutrients to internal nervous system structure.
Pathway for metabolic waste products back into blood.
- What has dendrites that have rounded knobs covered with cilia at their distal ends?
- Olfactory receptors
- What area of the brain controls blood pressure, temp, sleep, wakefullness, and secretes more hormones than any other structure?
- Which neuropeptides transmit pain impulses?
- Light touch and heavy pressure senses use which types of receptors?
- Meisner's corpuscles
- What is the only neuroglial cell found in the perepheral nervous system?
- Schwann Cells
- Lobes of the cerebrum include?
- Neurons that have many dendrites and only one axon are termed?
- Short term memory is thought to be the result of?
- Electrical activity and chemical activity.
- What is the large mass of brain tissue located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and posterior to the ponds and medulla oblongata?
- Following the passage of a nerve impulse the stimulus will not trigger an impulse regardless of strenght of stimulus applied this is referred to as?
- Absolute refractory period.
- When sodium ions rush inside the membrane of a cell causing the inside of the cell membrane to become + charged what is this referred to as?
- The autonomic nervous system is part of the _______ system that functions independently without conscious effort.
- What connects various regions of the brain with each other?
- Association areas
- What is the largest portion of the brain?
- Between the adjacent Schwann cells are gaps or spaces were they do not touch what are these spaces called?
- Nodes of Ranvier
- The taste and smell receptors are examples of what type receptors?
- What neurotransmitter is secreted by both the pre and postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system?
- What sdtructures contains the visual receptor cells?
- The insula is also known as?
- Island of Reil
- What cells produce myelin sheaths in the Central Nervous System?
- How many ventricles are found in the adult brain?
- What is the functions of Neuroglial cells (glial cells)?
- Produce growth factors.
Remove excess ions that accumulate between neurons.
Possible send and receive sensory impulses.
- Venous blood returning from the brain is first collected in which structure?
- Dural sinuses
- What are the primary taste receptors?
- How would you describe the autonomic nervous system?
Voluntary or Involuntary
- Unmyelinated nerve tissue appears?
- Gray in color
- A nerve impulse being transmitted jumps across the Nodes of Ranvier. What type of conduction is this?
- Which is the largest of the ventricles in the brain?
- What portion of the brain provides the higher brain functions such as voluntary muscular movement, memory, and reasoning?
- The first pair of cranial nerves, the oldfactory nerves are associated with?
- The ucus membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and folds back to cover the anterior surface of the eyeball is?
- Between the arachnoid and pia maters is a subarachnoid space that contains?
- Cerebrospinal fluid
- When the stimulus threshold has been met and an impulse is being carried, this is referred to as?
- Action Potential
- The vestibule is composed of what chambers located within the membranous labyrinth?
- Afferent neurons are called?
- What sensory receptors responds to pressure changes such as blood pressure?
- Sensory areas for pain, touch, temp, pressure, are located in what region of the brain?
- Which structures connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
- What neuroglial cells metabolize glucose and may actually transfer nutrients from blood to the neurons?
- How many pairs of cranial nerves are there in humans?
- A single neuron may receive impulses from two or more nerve fibers from different areas of the brain this is called?
- The autonomic nervous system includes what branches?
- Systomatic and parasympathetic.
- The primary motor areas of the brain are located in which lobe of the cerebrum?
- Frontal lobe
- A shallow groove is called a?
- What is the function of sensory neurons?
- They carry sensory info from the various body parts to the CNS.
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