Glossary of Anatomy Muscles 1-25

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Scalenes origin and insertion
origin: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae; insertion: Anterolaterally on first two ribs
Sternocleidomastoid origin and insertion
origin: Manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle; insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone
Scalenes action
Elevate first two ribs (aid in inspiration); may be important in coughing; flex and rotate neck
Scalenes innervation
Cervical spinal nerves
Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscles origin and insertion
origin: Attached anteriorly to mandible and medial pterygoid plate (superior), hyoid bone (middle), and laryngeal cartilages (inferior); insertion: Posterior median raphe of pharynx
Sternocleidomastoid action
Prime mover of active head flexion; simultaneous contraction of both muscles causes neck flexion, generally against resistance was when one raises head when lying on back; (head flexion is ordinarily result of combined effects of gravity and regulated relaxation of head extensors); acting alone, each muscle rotates head toward shoulder on opposite side and tilts or laterally flexes head to its own side
Sternocleidomastoid innervation
Accessory nerve and branches of C2-C4
Thyrohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Thyroid cartilage; insertion: Hyoid bone
Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscles action
Working as a group, all constrict pharynx during swallowing, which propels a food bolus to esophagus
Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscles innervation
Pharyngeal plexus (branches of vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves)
Omohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Superior surface of scapula; insertion: Hyoid bone, lower border
Thyrohyoid action
Depresses hyoid bone and elevates thyroid cartilage
Thyrohyoid innervation
First cervical nerve via hypoglossal nerve
Sternothyroid origin and insertion
origin: Posterior surface of manubrium of sternum; insertion: Thyroid cartilage
Omohyoid action
Depresses and retracts hyoid bone
Omohyoid innervation
C1-C3 through ansa cervicalis
Sternohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Manubrium and medial end of clavicle; insertion: Lower margin of hyoid bone
Sternothyroid action
Pulls thyroid cartilage (plus larynx and hyoid bone) inferiorly
Sternothyroid innervation
C1-C3 through ansa cervicalis
Geniohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Inner surface of mandibular symphysis; insertion: Hyoid bone
Sternohyoid action
Depresses larynx and hyoid bone if mandible is fixed; may also flex skull
Sternohyoid innervation
C1-C3 through ansa cervicalis
Mylohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Medial surface of mandible; insertion: Hyoid bone and median raphe
Geniohyoid action
Pulls hyoid bone superiorly and anteriorly, shortening floor of mouth and widening pharynx for receiving food
Geniohyoid innervation
First cervical spinal nerve via hypoglossal nerve

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