Glossary of Anatomy First Part of BONES

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Skeletal system
framework of bones and cartilage that prtoects our organs and allows us to move
4.mineral storage and homeostasis of bloodcell production (hemopoiesis) of energy
Long Bone
Length is greater than width; contain compact bone

ex: tibula and fibula
Short Bone
Nearly equal in length and width
Ex: wrist and ankle bone
Flat Bone
Provide protection and an area for muscle attatchement

ex: sternum
Irregular Bone
Complex shape

ex: vertabrae
Sutral Bone
wormian found in skull
Sesamoid Bone
bones with tendon

Ex: patella
body or shaft
end of bone
joins epiphysis to diaphysis
Articular Cartilage
thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering epiphysis
-area for articulation to reduce friction and absorb shock
tough white fiberous membrane around the surface of bone
-not covered by articular cartilage
-protection,nutritition, growth in diameter, repair, and attatchment of tendons and ligaments
marrow cavity
-contains yellow marrow
lining of the medullary cavity
Compact Bone
-Volkman's canal
-Haversian Canal
volkman's canal- area where blood vessels and nerves penetrate the periosteum

Haversian Canal- runs length wise and surrounded by concentric lamellae, lucunnae are located between lamelle, and camaliculi connect one lucunae to the next
process of bone formation

-intra membranes: cranial bones
-endochondral- most bones formed this way
-bone growth and remodeling deped upon nutrients available, hormones, exercise (most important hormone PTH)
-demineralization results from the removal of mechanical/stress
(ex: weight bearings, action at muscle)

Osteroporosis- loss of calcium in bone over time
How is the diameter of the bone increased?
Bone is increased by destruction of bone internally and deposition externally
-most important hormone that regulates blood calcium is PTH (
how does exercise affect the bone
increase strength of bone through increase deposition
-main stress on bone is from the pull of muscles caused by weight bearing exercise and gravity
Loss Calcium
Decrease rate of protein formation which means decrease in organic portion of the bone of the matrix
-bone gets brittle
opening through which blood vessels nerve or ligaments pass

ex: foramen magnum

depressions and opening
tube like passage way running within a bone
Ex:external auditory meatus

depressions and openings
Paranasal sinus
-air filled cavity within a bone and connected to the nasal cavity

ex:frontal sinus cavity

depressions and openings
depression in or on a bone

Ex:mandibular fossa (ditch or trench)

Depression or openings
knuckle like process
-large rounded prominence that forms a joint
ex: medial condyle

process that form joints
-rounded projection that forms a joint and is supported by a constricted portion(neck)
ex:femoral head
smooth flat surface
ex: illiac crest

process that forms a joint
large, usually roughened process
Ex:tibial tuberosity

process in attatchment
spinous process
sharp projection
ex: spinous process of vertabrae

large blunt projection found only on the femer
ex: greater trochanter

process for attatchement
prominent border or ridge

ex: illiac crest

process for attatchement
found in the skull and are considered immovable

-coronal suture- crown; unites frontal bone with 2 parietal bone
-sagittal suture- unites the two parietal bones
-lambdad- unites the parietal bones and occipital
-squamous- unites parietal and temporal
Frontal bone- forms part of eye socket contains the frontal sinus
Parietal bone- form the majority of the roof of the cranial cavity
Temporal-forms inferior portion of the cranium and portion of the floor
-joins together with the zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch
-contains the mandibular fossa, mastoid process, styloid process, and the external auditory meatus
-Occipital bone- contains the foramen magnum and has occipital condyles
cartilage or fiberous connective tissue membrane that hasnt been replaced by bone(intramembranous
aka soft spots
allows rapid growth of brain during infancy
point of contact between bones, cartilage and bones and between teeth and bones
study of joints
structure determines function
Joint flexibility
affected by hormones like relaxin
Types of structural joints
fiberous-no synovial cavity
-joint is held together by fibrous connective tissue

cartilagonous- no synovial cavity
-bones held together by cartilage

synovial-has synovial cavity
bones forming joint are united by a surrounding articulare capsule and accesory ligaments
immovable joints


gonphosis joint- teeth with maxilla and mandible

synchondrosis-joint is eventually replaced by bone
ex: epiphyseal plate
-slightly moveable

syndesmosis-band or ligament joint(dense fibrous connective tissue)
-some flexibility

symphysis-cartilaginous joint
ex:intervertiable disc and pubic symphasis
freely moveable (6 types)

1.gliding-back and forth movement ex:tarsals or carples

2.Hinge-ex:humerous and ulna

3.pivot-ex: proximal end of radius and ulna

4.condyloid- ex: temporal mandibular joint

5.saddle joint-ex: talus with the tibia and fibula

6.ball and socket- ex: femour with ilium
-have a synovial cavity containing synovial fluid
-presence of articular cartilage, fibrous capsules; ligament borsae (bone to bone)

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