Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 7C: Facial Bones
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- Mandible (2, fused)
- U-shaped lower jaw bone formed of 2 bones which fuse during infancy.
Articulates with the temporal bone at the temporomandibular joint.
Contains the mandibular body, mandibular ramus, mandibular condyle, mandibular angle, mental foramen, mandibular foramen, mandibular symphysis, and coronoid process
- Mandibular Angle
- Rounded right-angle portion of the mandible posterior to the chin, inferior to the ear. Where the ramus meets the mandibular body.
- Mandibular Body
- The "chin" portion of the mandible. Horizontal structure.
- Mandibular Ramus
- Vertical extension on either side of the mandibular body, anterior to the ears.
- Mandibular Notch
- U-shaped space separating the coronoid process and mandibular condyle.
- Coronoid Process
- Jutting anterior portion of the ramus anterior to the temporomandibular joint.
- Temporomandibular Joint
- Hinge-link joint where the mandibular condyle of the mandible meets with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
- Mandibular Condyle
- Jutting posterior process of the ramus which serves as the articulation point of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
- Mandibular Symphysis
- Slight depression in the "chin" indicating where the two mandibular bones fused during infancy
- Mandibular Foramen
- Large triangular hole in the medial surface of each ramus through which the mandibular branch of cranial nerve V passes.
- Mental Foramen
- Opening in the lateral aspect of the mandibular body, one on each side of the point of the chin.
- Maxillary Bones/Maxillae (2)
- Two bones fused in a median suture which form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits.
Articulates with ALL facial bones, EXCEPT the mandible.
Contains the anterior nasal spine, palatine processes, incisive fossa, frontal processes, maxillary sinuses, zygomatic processes, inferior orbital fissures, and infraorbital foramena
- Anterior Nasal Spine
- Pointed region at the junction of the maxillae, just inferior to the nose.
- Palatine Processes
- Processes of the maxillae which project posteriorly from the alveolar margins and fuse medially to form the anterior 2/3 of the hard palate.
- Incisive Fossa
- Large, medial (SINGULAR) bilateral opening located posterior to the central incisor teeth of the maxilla and piercing the hard palate. Hole between the two maxillae in the roof of the mouth.
- Frontal Processes
- Large, curving processes which extend superiorly from the maxillae to the frontal bone, forming part of the lateral aspects of the bridge of the nose.
- Maxillary Sinuses
- Largest of the paranasal sinuses. Flank the nasal cavity laterally, within the maxillae.
- Zygomatic Processes
- Articulation point of the maxillae and the zygomatic bones. Lateral to the nose.
- Inferior Orbital Fissure
- Branched opening between the maxilla, zygomatic bone, and sphenoid bone visible when looking into the orbit anteriorly.
- Infraorbital Foramen
- Small oval hole in the maxilla just inferior to each orbit.
- Zygomatic Bones (2)
- Irregularly shaped bones commonly referred to as the "cheek bones." Situated lateral to the maxilla. Form part of the lateral orbit.
Articulates with the zygomatic processes of temporal bone posteriorly, the frontal bone superiorly, and the maxilla anteriorly.
- Nasal Bones (2)
- Thin, rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose. Fused medially.
Articulate with the frontal bone superiorly, the maxillary bones laterally, and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone posteriorly. Inferiorly, they attach to the cartilages which form most of the skeleton of the external nose.
- Lacrimal Bones (2)
- Fingernail-sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between the maxilla and the ethmoid.
Articulate with the frontal bone superiorly, the ethmoid bone posteriorly, and the maxillae anteriorly.
Contains the lacrimal fossa.
- Lacrimal Fossa
- Opening piercing each lacrimal bone.
- Palatine Bones (2)
- Paired bones posterior to the palatine processes. Form the posterior hard palate and part of the orbit.
Articulate with the vomer, sphenoid bone, and the maxillae.
Contains the orbital process, perpendicular plate, sphenoidal process, horizontal plate, and pyramidal process.
- Horizontal Plate (palatine)
- Complete the posterior portion of the hard palate. Horizontal aspect of the palatine bones.
- Perpendicular/Vertical Plates (palatine)
- Superiorly projecting plates of the palatine bones which form part of the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity and a small part of the orbits.
- Orbital Process
- Irregularly shaped process on the inferior end of the perpendicular plate of the palatine bones. Forms part of the orbit.
- Sphenoidal Process
- Inward jutting processes on the palatine bones which serve as an articulation surface for the sphenoid bone.
- Pyramidal Process
- Somewhat conical processes located lateral to the horizontal plate of the palatine bones.
- Vomer (1)
- Slender, plow-shaped bone in the nasal cavity which forms the inferior part of the nasal septum.
Articulates with the sphenoid bone, palatine bones, maxillae, and ethmoid bone.
- Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)
- Thin, curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, just inferior to the middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone. Largest of the three pairs of conchae. From part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
Appear as flanking projections in the bottom corners of the triangle of the nose.
Articulate with the maxilla and ethmoid bone superiorly
- Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased.
Made up of the frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones.
- Nasal Cavity
- Cavity constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage.
The roof is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid.
The lateral walls are largely shaped by the superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid bone, the perpendicular plates of the palatine bones, and the inferior nasal conchae.
The floor is made up of the palatine processes of the maxillae and the palatine bones.
- Nasal Septum
- Divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts.
Contains the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer.
- Hard Palate
- Bony roof of mouth.
Formed from the maxillae and the palatine bones.
- U-shaped bone with no articulations located in the throat above the larynx. Serves as a point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles.
Contains the greater horns, lesser horns, and body.
- Greater Horns
- Large processes extending from the hyoid body which resemble the horns of a bull.
- Lesser Horns
- Small processes extending from the body of the hyoid, resembling the ears on a bull's head.
- Hyoid Body
- Central potion of the hyoid, the top of the "bull's head."
- Paranasal Sinuses
- The muchosa-lined air-filled sinuses of the skull, flanking the nasal cavity.
Exist in PAIRS in 5 skull bones: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae (2) (Frontal sinuses, ethmoid sinuses, sphenoid sinuses, maxillary sinuses)
- Roof of Orbit (name parts)
- Lesser wing of sphenoid bone, orbital plate of frontal bone
- Lateral Wall of Orbit (name parts)
- Zygomatic process of frontal bone, greater wing of the sphenoid bone, orbital surface of the zygomatic bone.
- Medial Wall of the Orbit (name parts)
- Sphenoid body, orbital plate of the ethmoid bone, frontal process of the maxilla, lacrimal bone
- Floor of the Orbit (name parts)
- Orbital process of the palatine bone, orbital surface of the maxillary bone, zygomatic bone.
- Superior, Middle, and Inferior Meatus
- In a sagittal section of the skull, three visible "floors" formed by the maxilla, inferior nasal concha, and the middle nasal concha of the ethmoid bone.
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