Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 5 MCAT Biology

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somatic division
conscious sensation and deilberate, voluntary
autonomic division
digestion, metabolism, circulation, perspiration, (involuntary processes)
away from
going towards
efferent portion of autonomic split into two subdivisions
parasympathetic and sympathetic
sympathetic system
fight or flight
parasympathetic system
rest and ruminate
central nervous system includes
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous sytem includes
all other axons, dendrites, and cell bodies
function of spinal cord
simple spinal reflexes. primitive processes such as walking, urination, and sex organ function
hindbrain includes
medulla, pons, and cerebellum "little brain"
funciton of medulla
control of autonomic processes: blood pressure, respiratory rate, and vomiting
function of pons
balance and antigravity
complex movements: hand eye coordination and balance
vestibular apparatus located where?
inner ear
cerebellum and pons receive info from where?
vestibular apparatus, which monitors acceleration and position relative to gravity
funciton of midbrain
visual and auditory info and respnsible for wakefulness
brainstem consists of what?
medulla, pons, and midbrain
forebrain includes what?
diencephalon and telencephalon
diencephalon or telencephalon consists of two seprate cerebral hemisphere?
diencephalon includes what?
thalmus and hypothalamus
function of thalamus
center for somatic sensation
function of hypothalamus
controls homeostatic functions such as temperature regulation; and primitive emotional responses such as hunger, rage, and the sexual drive
telencephalon consists of what?
cerebral hemispheres, basal nuclei and the limbic system
function of basal nuclei
(deep mass of gray) regulating body movement
function of limbic system
cerebral cortex
intelligence, communication, memory, planning, initiation of voluntary movement, reading, and "the mind"
left side of brain deals with what?
right side of brain deals with what?
visual spatial reasoning and music
corpus callosum
connects both cerebral hemisphere
broca's area
formation of speech
wernike's area
comprehension of speech
how many pairs of cranials nerves and paris of spinal nerves?
12 and 31
somatic sensory neuron has how many dendrite and axon(s)?
one each. bipolar neuron
autonomic PNS effrents of para and sympathetic consists of what neurons
preganglionic and postganglionic neron
preganglionic neuron position?
cell body in brainstem or spinal cord
postganglionic neuron sends axon to what?
all autonomic preganglionic neurons release what?
all sympathetic postganglionic neurons release
autonomic postganglionic neurons can be either?
excitotary or inhibitory
all parasympahtic postganglionic neurons release?
craniosacral system
parasympathetic system: preganglionic neurons cell bodies in brainstem
thoracolumbar system: sysmpathetic system describe the neurons
preganglionic is short while postganglionic cell is long to effector
Craniosacral system: parasympathetic system describe the neurons
preganglionic neuron is long axon small ganglion
adrenal gland consist of what two portions?
medulla (inner)
cortex (outer)
cortex of adrenal secrete what?
glucocorticoid (cortisol) and minderalocorticoid (aldosterone)
medulla of adrenal secrete what?
epinephrine (adrenaline)
pacinian corpuscles
pressure sensors deep in skin
pain receptors
outer ear comprise of...
auricle or pinna and external auditory canal
tympanic membrane
middle ear consists of...
ossicles, three small bones call maleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup)
oval window divides what part in the ear
the inner and middle
inner ear includes...
cochlea, semicircular canals, utricle, and the saccule
what part of ear important sense of balance
semicircular canals with utricle and saccula
eustrachian tube function
auditory tube, equalize pressure on both sides of eardum
organ of corti consists of
basilar membrane, hair cells, and tectorial membrane
what are perilymph and endolymph
fluids in cochlea
function of semicircular canals
three tubes filled with endolymph: detect motion
anterior pitutiary is known as
posterior pituitary is konwn as
what hormones do posterior pituitary release
ADH, oxytocin
what hormones do anterior pitutiary secrete?
prolactin, and growth hormone

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