Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 4 2
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- Groups of cells similar in structure and perform a common or related function.
- Four Primary Tissue Types
- Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous.
- Study of Tissues.
- Epithelial Tissue
- Covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
- 6 Roles as an interface tissue?
- 1. Protection
6. Sensory Reception
- Close-packed cells.
- Specialized contacts
- Form continuous sheets.
- Cells differ from other cells in both structure and function.
- Apical Surface
- Free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ.
- Fingerlike extensions.
- Propel substances.
- Basal Surface
- Surface near the base or interior of a structure.
- Basal Lamina
- Lies adjacent to the basal surface of an epithelium.
- Supported by connective tissue
- All epithelial sheets rest upon
- Reticular Lamina
- Fine network of collagen protein fibers.
- Basement Membrane
- Innervated but avascular
- Nerve fibers but contains no blood vessels.
- Replace last cells rapidly by cell division.
- Simple Epithelia
- Single cell layer
- Stratified Epithelia
- Squamous Cells
- Flattened and scalelike.
- Cuboidal Cells
- Boxlike and tall as they are wide.
- Columnar Cells
- Tall and column shaped.
- 4 Major Classes of Simple Epithelia?
- 1. Simple Squamous
2. Simple Cuboidal
3. Simple Columnar
4. Pseudostratified Columnar
- 4 Major Classes of Stratified Epithelia?
- 1. Stratified Squamous
2. Stratified Cuboidal
3. Stratified Columnar
- Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Description: Flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm.
Location: Kidney; air sacs of lungs; lining of ventral body cavity.
Function: Diffusion, Filtration, and Secretion.
- Provides a slick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of the cardiovascular system.
- Found in the serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs.
- Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
- Description: Cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei.
Location: Ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface.
Function: Secretion and Absorption.
- Simple Columnar Epithelium
- Description: Tall cells with oval nuclei, some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands.
Location: Digestive tract, gallbladder, and uterine tubes.
Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, and propel mucus by ciliary action.
- Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
- Description: Cells of differing heights; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia.
Location: Ducts of large glands; trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
Function: Secretion and propulsion of mucus.
- Stratified Squamous Epithelium
- Description: Basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers.
Location: Linings of the esophagus, mouth; epidermis of the skin.
Function: Protects tissues from abrasion.
- Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
- Description: Two layers of cube-like cells.
Location: Largest ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands.
- Stratified Columnar Epithelium
- Description: Basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated and columnar.
Location: Male urethra and in large ducts of some glands.
Function: Protection and Secretion.
- Transitional Epithelium
- Description: Basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome-shaped or squamous-like.
Location: Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra.
Function: Permits distention of urinary organ by contained bladder.
- One or more cells that make adn secrete a particular product.
- An aqueous fluid that usually contains proteins.
- Regulatory chemicals that secrete directly into the extracellular space.
- Exocrine Glands
- Mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and many others.
- Multicellular Exocrine Glands
- Have an epithelium-derived duct and a secretory unit.
- Simple Glands
- Have a single, unbranched duct.
- Compound Glands
- Have a branched duct.
- Secretory cells form a tube.
- Secretory cells form small, flasklike sacs.
- Merocrine Glands
- Secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced.
- Holocrine Glands
- Accumulate their products within them until they rupture.
- Unicellular Exocrine Glands
- Single cells scattered in an epithelial sheet amid cells with other functions. They have no ducts.
- Complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted.
- Goblet Cells
- Sprinkled in the columnar epithelium cells lining the intestinal and respiratory tracts.
- Connective Tissue
- Found everywhere in the body.
- Subclasses of connective tissues
- 1. Connective Tissue Proper
- Major Functions of Connective Tissue
- 1. Binding and Support
- Common Origin
- All tissues arise from.
- Derived from the mesoderm germ layer.
- Degrees of Vascularity
- Avascular= Cartilage
Dense= Poor Vascularization
- Extracellular Matrix
- Allows connective tissues to bear weight, withstand great tension, and endure abuse.
- Amorphous; Composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins.
- Provide support.
- Assembled spontaneously into cross-linked fibers.
- Stretch and recoil like a rubber band.
- Form delicate networks of blood vessels.
- Immature fibers of CT.
- Immature cartilage.
- Immature bone.
- Immature blood.
- White Blood Cells
- Help with tissue's response to injury.
- Plasma Cells
- Produce anti-bodies.
- Mast Cells
- Detect foreign substances and initiate local inflammatory responses.
- Phagocytize foreign materials.
- Make capillaries leaky.
- 1st Definitive Layer.
- What are the two types connective tissue?
- Loose and Dense.
- Location of Areolar Connective Tissue
- Under epithelia forms lamina propria and surrounds capillaries.
- Function of Areolar Connective Tissue
- Cushions organs and plays important role in inflammation.
- Soaks up excess fluids like a sponge and the affected area swells and become puffy.
- In mucous membranes, what is areolar connective tissue present as?
- Lamina propria.
- What is Adipose tissue?
- Closely packed adipocytes.
- Location of Adipose tissue?
- Under skin; around kidneys; in bones; in breasts.
- Function of Adipose Tissue?
- Provides food; insulates, supports and protects organs.
- Percent of body weight that is Adipose Tissue?
- What is Reticular Connective Tissue?
- Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells predominate.
- Location of Reticular Connective Tissue?
- Lymphoid organs.
- Function of Reticular Connective Tissue?
- Form internal skeleton that supports.
- Internal framework that can support many free blood cells.
- What is Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
- Parallel collagen fibers, few elastin, major cell type is the fibroblast.
- Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
- Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.
- Function of Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
- Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress.
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