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Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 2: Chemistry

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Major Elements Found in the Body (name)
C, H, O, N (96%)
Oxygen
H2O, CO2, O2
Carbon
organic molecule backbones, CO2, CO
Hydrogen
inorganic molecule component, H2O, H+
Nitrogen
protein, nucleic acids, nitrogenous wastes
Minor Elements Found in the Body (name)
P, I, K, S, Ca, Na, Fe (4%)
Calcium
Ca++, in bones and teeth as salts, used in muscle/nerve conduction
Phosphate
bones, teeth, ATP, nucleic acids
Potassium
K+, nerve/muscle function, major cation inside cells
Sulfur
proteins
Sodium
Na+, major cation outside cells, critical in nerve/muscle function
Iodine
thyroid hormone component
Iron
hemoglobin component
Synthesis/Anabolic Reactions
A + B = AB

Form bonds
Decomposition/Catabolic Reactions
AB = A + B

Break bonds
Oxidized
Loses electrons, loses H, combines with O2
Reduced
Gains electrons
Oxidation of Glucose/Cellular Respiration (equation)
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Dehydration Synthesis
Loss of H2O to combine 2 parts into a larger molecule

EG: amino acid + amino acid = protein
sugar + sugar = carbohydrate
Hydrolysis
Addition of H2O across a bond to remove bits from a larger molecule
Equation for pH
-log[H+]
Acidic
low pH, high [H+], most = 0 on pH scale
Basic/Alkaline
high pH, low [H+], most = 14 on the pH scale
Neutral
pOH = pH = 7, distilled water
Carbohydrates
mono/di/polysaccharides. 1-2% cell mass. Contain C, H, O. Used for energy storage and creation of ATP (cellular fuel).
Lipids
Nonsoluble molecules containing C, H, and O (with O in lower proportions). Largely nonpolar.
Neutral Fats
triglycerides

3C glycerol backbone

3 fatty acid chains
Phospholipids
Modified triglycerides containing a polar phosophorus-containing "head" group, a 3C glycerol backbone, and nonpolar fatty acid tails
Steroids
Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings (eg: cholesterol)
Neutralization Reaction
Acids and bases are mixed to form water and a salt (the joining of H+ and OH- to form water neutralizes the solution)
Neutral Fats/Triglycerides
Fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol (3C) backbone
Proteins
10-30% cell mass. Basic structural material of the body. Also acts as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, receptors, and membrane channels. Monomer = amino acid
Peptide Bond
Bond between amino acids.
Macromolecules
Large, complex proteins containing 100-over 10,000 amino acids
Primary Structure of Proteins
Linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
Secondary Structure of Proteins
Chains of amino acids twist or bend upon themselves to form a more complex structure (eg: A helix, B pleated sheet)
Tertiary Structure
Further bending and binding upon itself leads to the formation of a globular molecule.
Quarternary Structure
Two or more polypeptide change aggregated in a regular manner to form a complex protein.
Nucleic Acid Components
Nucleotides, sugar-phosphate backbone, hydrogen bonds between nucleotides
Nucleotides
Adenine/Thymine (or Uracil), Cytosine/Guanine

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