Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 15

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The Autonomic Nervous system
- "self-governing"

-Involuntary control of motor neurons.

-Innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of the body.
What is the purpose of the ANS?

How does it function?
To mantain homeostasis

functions independently but not completely involuntary (we can control it by heavy breathing f.e)
when comparing the somatic and autonomic motor systems what muscle systems are controled by what systems?
Somatic controls skeletal muscle

Autonomic controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glandular epithelium.
What are the differences in transmission of signals from somatic and autonomic systems?
Somatic systems have one axon and ALL cell bodies in the CNS

Autonomic system has pre and post ganglionic cells and cell bodies both in and out of the CNS.
What is the difference between preganglionic and post ganglionic? What is the result?
Preganglionic is myelinated while the postganglionic is not.

As a result the autonomic system is slower than the somatic system.
What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic- fight or flight

Nonsympathetic- eat and excrete
As well as functional differences between the systems, their are anatomical and biochemical differences.

Anatomically the Sympathetic Nervous system can also be called...
Anatomically the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system can be called
Sympathetic pathways have (short/long) postganglionic fiers, whereas the postganglionic fibers for parasympathetic pathways are (short/long).
Long; short
Sympathetic ganglia are located (close/far) from the CNS. Therefore Postganglionic fibers are (long/short)
By contrast, parasympathetic ganglia are (close/far) from the CNS. Therefore postganglion are (short/long).
close; long

far; short
Ganglion in the sympathetic nervous system are __________ whereas in the parasympathetic nervous system they are ___________.
Paravertebral ; terminal
Route of transmission for the sympathetic nervous system.
Signals leave the VENTRAL horn of the spine and travel to the ganglion through the WHITE ramus communicans to the spinal nerve.

ONCE IN THE SPINAL NERVE signal must enter the GRAY ramus communicans.
All ganglionic systems (pre and post) and systems (parasympathetic and sympathetic) use ACETYLCHOLINE as their NT with the exception of ______ which uses _________.
Post ganglionic cells of the Sympathetic nervous system; Norepinephrine
What happens to the following during Sympathetic response:

- energy
- eyes
- blood vessels
- Skin
- Sweat
- Saliva
- bronchioles
- sphincters
high energy use (high burning no digestion to produce)



Sweaty and cooler (no blood)

Dry mouth (no saliva)

Dilation of bronchioles (more air for blood and muscle)

during a parasympathetic response does vasodilation occur?
NOT REALLY. there is no mechanism to vasodilate.
What do we know about the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses in the GI tract with respect to animals vs. humans.
Humans sphincters close during sympathetic reactions in animals these processes are oppositte.

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