Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 11: Nervous System Fundamentals
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- Neuroglia/Glial Cells
- Cells which support the neurons, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, and satellite cells
Act as protectors, phagocytes, myelinators, play a role in capillary-neuron exchanges, and control the chemical environment around neurons.
- Small, ovoid cells with relatively long "thorny" processes. Act as macrophages/immune response cells of CNS.
- Most abundant glial cells. "Star shaped". Support/brace neurons and anchor them to their nutrient supply lines (capillaries).
- Glial cells which line up along the thicker neuron fibres in the CNS and wrap their processes tightly around the fibres, forming insulating myelin sheaths.
- Ependymal Cells
- Ciliated glial cells of the CNS. Line the central cavities of the brain and the spinal cord, where they form a barrier between the cerebrospinal fluid and the tissue fluid bathing the cells of the CNS. Help circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
- Satellite Cells
- PNS glial cells which surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia. Function unknown.
- Schwann Cells
- Glial cells which surround and form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibres in the PNS.
- Structural units of nervous tissue, specialized to transmit messages from one part of the body to another.
- Clusters of neuronal cell bodies within the CNS.
- Collections of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS.
- White Matter
- Myelinated regions of brain/nervous tissue
- Grey Matter
- Unmyelinated regions of brain/nervous tissue.
- Neuronal processes within the CNS.
- Neuronal processes within the PNS.
- Cytoskeletal elements of the neuron.
- Nissl Bodies
- rER of neurons. (Dark splotches in cell body)
- Receptive neuronal processes, usually shorter and highly branched.
- Neuronal processes which act as transmitters and nerve impulse generators. Usually very long and unbranching.
- Branching parts of the one axon per neuron.
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