Glossary of Anatomy Ch. 4

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2 classifications of body membranes
1. epithelial membranes
2. connective tissue membranes
cutaneous membrane -
Types of epitheliam membranes
1. cutaneous
2. mucous
3. serous
Cutaneous is a type of __ membrane
mucous is a type of __ membrane
serous is a type of __ membrane
characteristics of mucous membranes
1. lines all body cavities open to the exterior
2. moist and open to secretion such as mucus
Examples of organs open to the exterior
organs of respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Serous membranes line __.
all body cavities closed to the exterior
characteristics of the serous membranes
1. lines body cavities closed to the exterior
2. occur in pairs
serous fluid separates two layers
Examples of serous membranes
1. peritoneum (abdonimal cavitiy)
2. Pleura (lungs)
3. Pericardium (heart)
Occur in pairs of serous membrane
Parietal layer lines wall of ventral body cavity, then folds on itself to form visceral layer which covers outside wall of an organ
type of connective tissue membrane
synovial membrane
characteristics of synovial membrane
Line fibrous capsules surrounding joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths
Basic skin functions (7)
1. Insulates and cushions deeper organs
2. Protects body from mechanical damage, chemicals, thermal damage, ultraviolet radiation, and bacteria
3. Upper layer is full of keratin and cornified (hardened) to prevent water loss
4. Regulates heat loss (sweat and capillaries)
5. Mini-excretory system (sweat)
6. Synthesizes vitamin D with sunlight
7. Provides information about external environment (nerves)
Two major strucutres of the skin
Epidermis and dermis
The epidermis is what?
Avasular, epithelial tissue
Layers of the epidermis
1. Stratus basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. stratum corneum
Germinativum is another name for what?
Stratus basale
Characteristics of stratus basale
1. deepest layer
2. produces millions of cells daily
3. cells move upward to form next layers and increase their amount of keratin
characteristics of stratum lucidum
Only found in thick, hairless skin areas
characteristics of stratum corneum
1. outermost and thickest layer
2. all cells are dead because of their distance from blood cells
3. cells completely filled with keratin
pigment made by melanocytes to protect against ultraviolet radiation
The dermis is what?
made of connective tissue
2 layers of the dermis
Papillary layer and reticular layer
chracteristics of the papillary layer
1. upper layer
2. dermal papillae
What are dermal papillae?
Projections into epidermis which supply nutrients or house pain and touch receptors, responsible for fingerprints
characteristics of reticular layer
1. deepest sin layer
2. contains blood vells, sweat and oil glands, and pressure receptors
Pacinian corpuscles are what?
pressure receptors
Pacinian corpuscles are part of what layer of the skin?
reticular layer
__ and __ are found throughout the dermis
collagen and elastic fibers
Collagen and elastic fibers are found throughout the dermis to __ and __.
Give toughness and flexibility
What 3 pigments contribute to skin color?
1. melanin
2. carotene
3. hemoglobin
3 colors of melanin
yellow, brown, and black
color of carotene
characteristics of hemoglobin
carries oxygen and causes rosy glow in light-skinned people
Appendages of the skin
1. cutaneous glands
2. hair and hair follicles
3. Nails
Cutaneous glands -
all exocrine glands
Characteristics of sebaceous (oil) glands
1. found everywhere except on palsm of hands and soles of feet
2. release sebum (an oil), a lubricant that keeps skin soft and moist and also can kill bacteria
Acne is an infection of these glands
sebaceous (oil) glands
two types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands
1. eccrine
2. apocrine
Eccrine glands -
-found everywhere
-produce sweat which fuctions in waste removal and heat regulation
apocrine glands -
found in axillary and genital regions, produces a type of sweat that also contains proteins and fatty acids, exact function unknown
Hair and hair follicles -
minor protectice functions, hair has lost much of its importance to humans
follice -
produces hair
part of hair enclosed by follicle
shaft -
part projected out of skin
hair bulb -
hair cells divide here, pushed outward, keratinized, and die
Arrector pili -
muscles on either side of follicle connecting it to dermal tissue, contractions cause "goose bumps"
characteristics of nails
1. scale-like modification of the epidermis
2. nail cells heavily keratinized after production and die like hair cells
Infections and allergies -
over 1,000 different ailments include athlete's foot, boils, cold sores, contact dermatitis (poison ivy), ipetigo, psoriasis
Burns are caused by
intense heat, electricity, UV radiation, or certain chemicals
Burns cause what?
loss of fluid
Rule of nines -
estimates amount of fluid lost to burns by dividing body into 11 areas each account for 9% of body plus 1% for pubic area
Burns do what?
Open the body to infection
Classification of burns
1st, 2nd, 3rd
1st degree burn -
only epidermis damaged ex. sunburn
2nd degree burn -
involves epidermis and uppper layer of dermis, skin developes blisters
3rd degree burn -
entire thickness of sin destroyed, no pain, skin grafts must be used because regeneration is not possible
Skin cancer is caused by what?
exposure to UV rays, frequent skin infections, chemicals, or physical trauma
3 types of cancer
1. basal cell carcinoma
2. squamous cell carcinoma
3. malignant melanoma
characteristics of basal cell carcinoma
1. most common and least malignant
2. arises from statum basale
3. appear most often on sun-exposed region of skin
4 full cure in 99% (5 year rate) of cases surgically removed
characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma
1. believed to be caused by the sun
2. arises from statum spinosum
3. found on scalp, ears, lower lip, and back of hands
4. Metatisizes faster than basal cell, but cure rate is good if faught early (90-97% for 5 yr. rate depending on area affected and procedure used to cure)
Characteristics of malignant melanoma
1. cancer of melanocytes
2. Only 5% of skin cancers but very deadly (5 year cure rate 7-100% depending on state)
How to detect skin cancer
1. asymmetry
2. border irregularity
3. color
4. diameter
In youth, skin is _.
thick, resilient, and well hydrated
__ and __ occur with aging
balding and graying
As we age, skin becomes _
thin and it loses elasticity
Balding and graying occur with aging and are caused by _.
genetic factors, stress, or drugs.

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