Glossary of Anatomy Abdomin Kidneys
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- Where do the ureters pass over the pelvic brim?
- at the bifurcation of the common illiac arteries
- What do the suprenal glands secrete and make
- secrete: corticosteriods and androgens… make: epinephrine and norepinephrine
- What is found in the retroperitoneum?
- kindneys, ureters, suprarenal glands, aorta, IVC, nerve and lymphatic plexuses
- Put the following in order: minor calyx, major calyx, renal papilla, renal pelvis, renal pyramid
- renal pyramid > renal papilla > minor calyx > major calyx > renal pelvis
- T/F: the kidney have collateral blood supply
- What does the left renal vein drain?
- adrenal, testicular or ovarian, (and anastamoses with the left inferior phrenic vein, which also connetcs to the IVC at the level of the diaphram.)
- Give the order from outside to inside on the kidney: renal fascia, perirenal fat, pararenal fat, fibrous capsule of the kidney
- pararenal fat > renal fascia > perirenal fat > capsule of the kidney
- T/F the kidneys and the suprarenal glands are separated by fibrous tissue
- Match the following part of the suprarenal gland with its embryologic origin: cortex, medulla and mesoderm, ectoderm from the neural crest.
- cortex: ectoderm from the neural crest… medullar: mesoderm
- Match the following part of the suprarenal gland with its function: cortex, medulla and epipnephrine, norepinephrine and steroid hormones
- Cortex: epin & norepi… medulla: steroid hormones
- Which (left or right) kidney can one palpate? Why?
- Right (it's higher) if you can feel the left --> enlargement
- What can cause pleura effusion?
- Pleural effusion maybe be caused by the inflammation of the kidney and irritation of nearby pleura
- Name 3 places where kidney stones tend to impact:
- 1) pelviureteric jnc; 2) at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery, 2) and its entry into the bladder.
- what level do you find the kidneys?
- left: T11-L2: Right: T12-L3
- Where do you usually feel kidney stone pain? Why?
- Kidney pain due to stones initially goes to the umbilical area due to T10 innervation as it moves down the ureter pain in the L1 groin region and the thigh L2
- What level do the renal arteries arise?
- between L1 and L2 (and anterior to the renal veins
- At what level is the celiac trunk?
- What are the two area that the kidneys arise? After fusion of the two areas, which direction does it travel?
- wolfian duct (secreting)... the mesonephronic ridge (collecting)… up
- What do you call large kidneys that are caused when the collecting systems do not unite with the secreting system and cysts form where this failure occurs
- congenital polycistic kidneys
- Besides congential polycystic kidneys, give 5 types of congentital kidney and ureter anomalies.
- 1) A kidney may not ascend to its adult position
2) One kidney/ureter may not develop.
3) Horsehoe kidney: The lower poles of the 2 kidneys become fuse; ascent is prevented so it’s confined to the lower lumbar region.
4) The ureteric bud may split into 2 portions → bifid ureter or pelvis. Most commonly the 2nd completely separate ureter (may cause urinary incontinence)
5) Ureter becomes involved in the development of the inferior vena cava and passes behind it the retrocaval ureter –becomes obstructed by the vein (rare)
- what can back pain, often confused with renal pain, be caused by?
- pathological enlargement of the aorta
- What part of the kidneys do you find the loop of Henle and collecting tubules?
- Renal Pyramids
- What part of the kidney do you find glomeruli, proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the the cortical portion of the collecting ducts?
- Cortex of the kidney
- At what level does the abdominal arota bifurcate?
- In Perinephric Abscess, why can't pus spread to the contralateral side of the kidney? renal vessels and ureter; 2) Why can pus (or blood from damaged kidney) spread in that direction toward pelvis?
- 1) renal fascia attaches to renal vessels and ureter… 2) renal fascia is loose between anterior and posterior layers
- Where is the site for the a transplanted kidney in the donor? Why?
- iliac fossar of the greater pelvis, b/c it's where it is supported, and it's where shorts lenghts of renal artery and vein are present and required: they are attached to the iliac artery and vein and the ureter is sutured onto the nearby urinary bladder
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