Glossary of Anatomy 332 Integumentary System Week 1
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- The skin is divided into what regions?
Subcutaneous or Hypodermis
- What is the outer region of the skin that is composed of epithelial cells.? There is no blood in this region.
- The epidermis
- This section is the section of nerves that moves towards the epidermis. It is composed of connective tissue.
- The dermis
- What is the region of loose areolar connective tissue with varied amounts of fat. This area projects up to the dermis?
- Subcutaneous tissue
- What is the largest organ of the body?
- The epidermis has how many layers?
- What 2 things does the epidermis lack?
- Blood and nerve supply
- What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
- 1. Stratum basale (germinativum)
2. Statum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratrum corneum
- Where is the stratum basale located? How many cell layers does it have?
- This is the bottom layer of the epidermis.
It is 1 cell layer thick, known as the growing layer. Cells are dividing
- This part of the epidermis is 10 cell layers thick, it is living, it has distorted cells due to a rapid proliferation of cells from stratum germ
- Stratum spinosum
- This layer of the epidermis is both living and dead and is up to 5 cell layers thick, degerating cells with a granular appearance under a microscope, cells are filling up with keratin
- Stratum granulosum
- This layer of the epidermis is dead and is up to 5 cell layers thick, they are clear translucent cells that are only seen in thick skin like the palms and soles of the feet
- Stratum lucidum
- This layer of the epidermis is dead and is from 20 to 30 cell layers thick, there are 2 to 3 layers in areas like the eyelides and external genitalia, up to 100s of cell layers thick on sole of foot, completely filled with keratin, forms waterproof layer
- Stratum corneum
- The epidermis sits on what?
- The basement membrane (aka) basal lamina
- What are the 4 types of cells found in the epidermis?
- 1. Keratinocytes
3. Langerhans cells
4. Merkel cells
- This type of cell makes up 90% of the epidermis. It's function is to fill up the skins cells with keratin
- This type of cell makes up 8% of the epidermis, produces pigment called melatonin - each cell feeds 8 to 10 keratinocytes
- A brown pigment that they body uses as protection agains UV rays
- The type of cell is the honorary white cell that acts like the white cell
- This type of cell has honorary nerve endings and is only found on hairless skin
- Merkel cell
- This part of the layers of skin is the thicker of the 2 regions of the skin and is known as true skin, it is commercially known as leather
- The dermis
- Type of gland associated with hair follicles, produces sebum, oily substance that helps prevent water loss, not found on hairless areas like palms and soles
- Sebaceous glands
- Sweat glands approx 2-5 million on body , most on palms and soles
- Sudoriferous glands
- These type of glands are limited to extgernal genetalia and armpits, produce substances when sexually aroused
- Apocrine sweat glands
- This type of sweat gland makes up most of the 2 - 5 million sweat glands, excretion keeps the body cool, responds to neural transmitters, mostly on palms and soles
- Eccrine sweat glands
- Name for modified sweat gland associated with the ear
- Ceruminous glands
- Name for milk producing sweat glands
- Mammary glands
- Portion of hair seen above the skin, keratinized skin cells
- Hair shaft
- Portion of hair below skin surface, same structure as hair shaft
- Hair root
- Name for tissue around hair root that is producing the hair
- Hair follicle
- 3 things that make up the hair follicle
- 1. gland
3. nerve supply
- Name for expanded lower end of the hair follicle where blood supply enters the growing area of the hair
- Bulb of the follicle
- Name for area attached to the hair shaft, helps elevate the hair
- Arrector pili muscle
- Part of nail that you trim
- Free edge
- The visible portion of the name
- Nail body
- The proximal portion of the nail covered by skin (can't see it)
- Nail root
- The fold that surrounds the sides and proximal end of the nail body
- Nail fold
- Area under nail that attaches the nail to the nail bed
- Hyponychium (quick)
- Area of stratum corneum that covers the nail root and extends out over the proximal end of the nail body
- Eponychum (cuticle)
- Area of skin upon which the nail sits
- Nail bed
- Growth area of nail located around the nail root
- Moon part of nail
- Anterior opening of the nasal cavity
- Anterior nares
- Name for the posterior opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx
- Chonchae (posterior nares)
- Name for the front of the nose
- Hard tissue, bone & cartilage that divides the nose in to right and left
- Nasal septum
- The name for the other side of the roof of the mouth, the area of the maxillary and palatine bones
- Floor of the nose
- The narrow area or ceiling area of the nasal cavity
- Roof of the nose
- Area of the roof of the nose that has holes for passage
- Cribriform plate
- Name for the projections off of the ethmoid bone
- Conchae (turbinates)
- List these from smaller to largest areas that come off the ethmoid bone
Superior, Middle, Inferior
- Superior - smaller, comes off ethmoid
Middle - larger, comes off ethmoid
Inferior - largest, separate named bone
- Tube like passage way that is found under each chonchae
- Name for the opening of the ethmoidal sinuses that opens above the superior chonchae
- Superior meatus
- Name for the opening of the ethmoidal sinuses and frontal sinues
- Middle meatus
- Name for the opening of the nasolacrimal duct
- Inferior meatus
- Paired air spaces within 4 bones of the skull that produce mucus for protection of airways
- Paranasal air sinuses
- Group of small sinuses that opens in the superior and middles meatus
- Ethmoidal air sinues
- Tube that runs from medial corners of eye designed to carry excess tears to nasal cavity
- Nasolacrimal duct
- Thick mucus membrane, richly supplied with blood vessels, capable of having a great deal of swelling
- Nasal mucosa
- Names for the 3 regions of the pharynx
- 1. Nasal
- Nasal pharyx is located where?
- Behind the nose
- Oral pharyx is located where?
- Behind the mouth
- Laryngeal pharyx is located where?
- Below the mouth
- The upper respiratory tract covers what area?
- Laryngeal pharynx and up
- The lower respiratory tract covers what area?
- Laryx and down
- Forms the major part of the skeleton layer of the laryx
- Thyroid cartilage
- Area at the lower end of the laryx attached to lower posterior margin of the thyroid cartillage, connects larynx to trachea
- Cricoid cartillage
- Found on either side of the back end of the cricoid cartilage, hinged and swing back and forth
- Artytenoid cartilages
- 2 strips of mucus membranes attached in fron to the larynx and in back to the arytenoid cartillages.
- Vocal folds
- Name for vocal cords
- Name for unpaired leaf shaped piece of cartilage attached to the top of the rim of the thyroid cartillage that moves up and down like a trap door
- Area below the larynx
- Name for area that lays on the posterior side of the trachea
- Trachea splits into 2 areas called...
- primary bronchi
- The primary bronchi enter into what structure
- Right and left lungs
- How many lobules does the right lung have?
- How many lobuels does the left lung have?
- Name for the pleural sac that touches or faces the wall of the chest
- Parietal pleura
- Name for the pleural sac that is located against the lungs
- Visceral pleura
- The right lung has how many lobes?
- 3 lobes - right superior, right middle and right inferior
- The right lung has how many lobules?
- 10 lobules
- The left lung has how many lobes?
- No middle lobe
- The left lung has how many lobules?
- 8 lobules
- Describe the respiratory tree
- 1. Secondary bronchi
4. Terminal bronchioles
5. Respiratory bronchioles
6. Alveolar ducts
8. Alveolar sacs
9. Pulmonary capillaries
- Part of the pleural sac that touches or faces the wall of the chest
- Parietal pleura
- Part of the pleural sac that lies against the lungs
- Visceral pleura
- Each side of the heart has what type of an upper chamber?
- A smaller upper chamber
- Each side of the heart has what type of a lower chamber?
- A larger lower chamber
- Part of the heart that receives blood from the body
- The right atrium
- Part of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs
- The right ventricle
- Part of the heart that takes blood from the lungs and takes reoxygenated blood from the lungs
- The left atrium
- Part of the heart that takes reoxygenated blood and pumps it out to the body
- The left ventricle
- Which area of the heart is the largest?
- The left ventricle
- Name for the modified areas of heart muscle cells that act as nerves
- Nodes of the heart
- Node in upper wall of the right atrium that initiates the heart beat approx 70 times per minute
- Sinu-atrial nodes or S-A node
- Like power lines that carry an impulse over the entire right and left atrium and contract almost simultaneously
- Internodal tracts
- Located in the wall between the right atrium and the left ventricle which stimulates that right and left ventricle
- Atrio-ventricular node or A-V node
- Carries electrical impulse from the AV node
- The AV bundle or the bundle of His
- Divisions of the bundle of His that splits into the right and left ventricle
- Right and left bundle branches
- Carries the electrical impulses going into the heart
- Purkinje fibers
- Carries blood away from the heart - thick walled vessel
- Smaller vessels that distribute blood, smooth muscle that represents the division of the large arteries into smaller vessels
- Shortest/thinnest of vessels, exchange of oxygen takes place here
- Name for slightly larger vessels which is the beginning of the return of blood back to the heart
- Bigger vessels that bring blood back tot he heart, bigger than arteries but thinner walled
- 2 arteries that immediately come off the ascending aoarta and feed the right and left side of the heart
- The R and L coronary arteries
- First big artery that is umpaired and has 3 major branches
- Celiac trunk
- Name for superficial veins
- How many valves does a vein have?
- It has a 1 way valve to keep blood flowing in 1 direction
- Superficial vein that runs to the lateral side of arm and dumps into the axillary vein
- Cephalic vein
- Vein that runs up the medial side of the arm and empties into the brachial vein
- Basillic vein
- Odd by-pass vein that is umpaired
- Azygous vein
- Vein that runs up the medial side of the lower extremity to groin and dumps into the femoral vein
- The great saphenous vein
- The right side of the lymph vessels empties where?
- The right thoracic duct
- What 4 areas of the body do not contain lumph vessels?
- Avascular system, CNS and eye(brain/spinal), spleen and bone marrow
- The system that is known for carrying leftover fluid from the tissue spaces back to the heart
- The lymphatic system
- A substance that is produced in 1 part of the body that influences cells in another part of the body
- A hormone
- A gland that empties its' chemicals into cells that respond
- Endocrine gland
- A gland that empties its' chemical substance into a duct
- Exocrine gland (example: perspiration)
- Type of hormone found in receptor sites in the nucleus of the cell
- Thyroid hormone
- Type of hormone found in receptor sites in the cytoplasm
- Steroid hormone
- Type of hormone found in the receptor sites on the outer surface of the cell membrane
- All the rest of the hormones
- Name the 5 endocrine glands
- 1. Pituitary
- 5 organs with substantial hormonal activity
- 1. Thymus
4. Duodemum of SI
- Pineal gland is located where?
- Back of the brain
- Pituitary gland is located where?
- Front of the brain
- Gland that lays below and in front of the larynx
- The largest of the pure endocrine glands
- Gland that is located behind the stermum and is 100% hormonal
- Gland that is 98% exocrine and 2% endocrine
- 20% of hormonal production, produces glucose and raises blood sugar levels
- Alpha cells
- 75% of hormonal production, secretes insulin, lowers blood sugar levels
- Beta cells
- 5% of hormonal secretion, produces human grouth hormones
- Delta cells
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