Glossary of Anatomy 241 Exam I chapter 3
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- The vertebral column is composed of individual bones called the _
- each vertebrae consists of:
- solid cylindrical body called the _ which encloses the _
- _ arch (enclosing the spinal cord)
- _ arch (enclosing the blood vessels)
- - centrum, notochord
- between each vertebrae are compressive cushions called _
- intervertebral disks
- early vertebrates had poorly developed vertebrae with a very rigid _
- in mammals the notochord only persists in the intervertebral disks as the _
- nucleus pulposus
- The head represents the concentration of _ in the anterior portion of animals
- sensory receptors
- the head required the additional evolution of a _ to manage these sensory inputs
- central nervous system
- The evolution of vertebrates is hypothesized to be a response to the increasingly active lifestyles of organisms and follows 3 stages:
- 1. prevertebrates
- Defination of:
- 1.filter feeder
2.muscular pharyngeal pump
- prevertebrates were:
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders
3. _ around the mouth was the only means of generating a current of water/food into the mouth.
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders (mud grubbers)
3. had _
- 1. jawless fish
3. muscular pharyngeal pumps
- the muscular pharyngeal pump:
1. muscles encircle the _
2. pharyngeal bars comprised of _
muscles _ water out
muscles _ / cartilage "bounces
back" - water in
- 1. pharynx
2. cartilage, constrict, relax
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders "preadtors"
3. _ than agnathans
- 1. jawed
- Living agnathans:
_ - round mouth
_ - class of Hagfish
_ - class of Lamprey
- _: between Agnathans and gnathostomes
_ like feeding apparatus (bony)
_ and myomeres for movement
_ which were controlled by extrinsic
All properities would suggest that these animals were _
_ (class of fossil gnathostomes)
_ (cartilaginous fish)
_ (bony fish)
- Placoderms - "_"
- all had jaws
- most were encased in heavy _ plates
- no true vertebrae (ossified _)
- _ dwellers (swam on the bottom)
- no living relatives closely related
- Armored fish
- Chondrichthyes: _/_
- cartilaginous fish (_ bone)
- _ scales on their surface (cone shaped)
- _ than water (sink)
- large livers with _
- embryos can be carried for nearly _
- Chondrichthyes divided into 2 subclasses:
1. _ (sharks and rays)
2. _ (chimaeras)
- 1. Elasmobranchs
- _ (sister group to the bony fish)
- _ (bony fish)
- Tetrapos forerunners
- Aconthodians: "_"
Ancient fish between _ and _
- spiny form
- Osteichthyes: “_”
- _ living vertebrates fall into this group.
Evolved a _ for buoyancy.
- boney fish
- _: “Bony fish”
Divided into 2 subclasses:
- _ “ray finned fish”
Palaeomisciformes – superorder
Neopterygii “ _ ray finned fish”
- Sarcopterygii- "_"
- fins are placed at the end of short appendages with _
-These were from maneuvering in _ or muddy lake beds.
- these are the forerunners of the _
- fleshy finned fish
internal bony structures
- Sarcopterygeii Divided into 3 groups:
- 1. Coelocanths
- *need to complete*
Coelocanths - only a single surviving member. Deep ocean dwellers.
_ - (superorder)
_ - (Division)
- Rhipidistians – fossil tetrapod ancestors.
_ - (superorder)
_ - (Division)
- __________ – “lungfish”. Posses paired lungs for survival in low water conditions.
- Tetrapods: “_”
-include terrestrial, amphibious, aquatic, and flying groups.
-All have ___________, muscular limbs with jointed distal appendages
Can be divided into 3 groups:
1. 2. 3.
- 4 footed
- _ – class of ancient tetrapods.
- aquatic juveniles, terrestrial adults
- Named for complex _ structure.
- _ – subclass of ancient amphibians, lacking labyrinthodont teeth.
- _ – subclass of modern amphibians
a. respire through _
b. _ teeth (base and tip are sutured)
1. _ - salamanders
2. _ - frogs and toads
3. _ - caceilians
- 1. Urodela
- _ – forerunners of the amniotes
- Amniotes: embryos wrapped in _ (amnion)
Divided into 2 cladistic groups (based on _ structure):
_ – reptiles, birds and dinosaurs
_ - mammals and therapsids
- _ – several patterns of temporal fenestrations.
_ skull – no fenestrae
_ skull – 2 temporal fenestrae
_ skull – 1 fenestra (lost 1 from the diapsid skull pattern).
- Reptiles (class reptilian):
_ – subclass in which turtles are the
_ – all other reptiles (modern).
- Birds: class Aves
- _ most abundant group of vertebrates- descendants of _ (archaeopteryx)
-Only birds, (bats and pterosaurs) evolved the capacity to “_”.
-Hollow bones and _ for flight.
- _ – sail back reptile
- _ – ma
- second, reptiles
- Birds: class _
Divided into 2 groups:
- _ – small size with “slicing teeth”.
- mammals – class of only animals with
2. _ glands
2. mammary glands
- Mammals :
- _ – egg laying mammals. Duckbill platypus, spiny anteater.
- _ – young finish development inside a “pouch”.
- _ – young develop fully internally nourish through the placenta.
- mice, rats
- cats, dogs
- pigs, deer ruminants
- whales, dolphins
- Primates :
Family _ – chimps, gorillas
Family _ - humans
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