Glossary of Anatomy 241 Exam I chapter 1
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- Structure= _ and _
- form , function
- Charles Darwin has been linked to evolution since the publication of his book _
- Origin of Species
- Evolution = _ and natural_
- adaptation , selection
- _ _ were the first to propose gradual changes in organisms over 2500 years ago. (i.e. _)
- Greek philosophers, Amaximander
- The father of biological classification.
- Carolus Linnaeus
- Carolus Linnaeous, Sweedish biologist who devised the _ _ for biological organisms that is still in use today.
- classification system
- Linnaeus firmly believed that species were _ and created originally as we find them today.
- An english naturalists who formulated the concepts of "natural selection" at the same time as Darwin.
- A.R Wallace
- _ wrote a letter to _ explaining his ideas about evolution. His ideas were "stolen".
- Wallace, Darwin
- Darwin did not propose that species _, but the _ and _ for this evolutionary change.
- evolved, conditions, mechanisms
- Factors affecting evolution proposed by Darwin: (3)
- 1. Members of a species reproduce due to a high reproductive potential.
2. Competiton for declining resources.
3. Survival of the few ( and the fittest)
- 2 or more features which share a common ancestery (bird wing, squirrel arm)
- 2 or more features which perform a similar function, regardless of their ancestery (bird wing, bug wing)
- 2 or more features that only look alike (leaf shaped wing of insects, actual leaf)
- Three seperate contributors to biological design.
- Homoplogy, analogy, homoplasty
- Give an example of each:
These are each seperate contributors to _
- 1. seal flipper, human hand
2. bird wing, bug wing
3. leaf shaped wing, actual leaf
- the way in which an animal's body meets the planet is called
- in _ symmetry a body is laid out equally from a central axis
- in _ symmetry a body may only be divided into right and left parts
- head end of an animal
- anterior/ cranial
- tail end of an animal
- posterior/ caudal
- front or belly
- midline of the body
- away form the midline
- chest, supporting the forelimbs
- pectorial region
- hips, supporting the hindlimbs
- pelvic region
- body divided into dorsal and ventral sections
- coronal plane
- body divided into left and right sections
- sagittal plane
- body divided into anterior and posterior sections
- transverse plane
- the action or properity of a part as it works in an organism
- refers to how the part is used in the environment
- biological role
- For feathers what is the:
1. biological role
- 1. insulation, aerodynamics, courtship
2. cover the body
- when a structure or behavior possesses the necessary form and function before the biological role arises that it eventually serves it is said to be _
- the course or path of evolution, may be summerized in graphic schemes called dendrograms.
- family trees; summerized graphic schemes
- evolution is observed to proceed in either _ or _.
- phyletic gradualism, quantum evolution
- _ -gradual changes as taking millions and millions of years to bring about evolution of one species into another
- phyletic gradualism
- _ (_)- sudden sharp branches in the evolutionary tree followed by long periods of stasis and no change
- quantum evolution (punctuated evolution)
- _ (_)-all organisms that share a unique, common ancestor
- clade (linage)
- phylogenetic systematics that places together organisms belonging to the same clade.
- _ -dendrogram depicting the linage
- _ - includes the ancestor and all descendants
- monophyletic clade
- A clade which includes members that are not derived through the result of common descent (ie birds and mammals)
- polyphyletic clade
- A clade that does not include all members that are derived from a common ancestor.
- paraphyletic clade
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