Glossary of Anatomy 230
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- Wide flat tendons
- Connective tissue, Surrounds individual muscle cells, attached to cell membrane
- A bundle of muscle cells
- Connective tissue, surrounds fasicles
- Connective tissue, Surrounds the entire muscle
- Two types--
Actin- thin filiments, darker bands
Myosin-think filiments, lighter bands
Both are proteins that aid in muscle contraction, cause the striped appearance of muscle cells.
- Bundles of myofiliments
- Plasma membrane of muscle cells
- Sarcoplasmic reticulem
- Covers muscle fibers, releases calcium for muscle contraction
- Connective tissue, attaches muscles to bones
- Z line/disk
- The ends of the sarcomere-Actin connects to the z-bands. Where the sarcomeres join together.
- H zone
- Center of Sarcomere
- M Line
- Line running down the center of the Sarcomere, myosin anchor to I band.
- Thick filament
Contains bundles of myosin molecules
the tail in anchored to the center of the sarcomere, the M-line
the head of myosin attaches to actin if calcium is present in the sarcoplasm
- Sliding filament theory 1
- When a skeletal muscle contracts: the I-bands get shorter, the z-lines move closer together, the myofilaments (actin and myosin) stay the same length, but slip past each other), the two myofilaments move along side of each other
- Sliding filament theory 2
- Myosin attaches to actin, actin is pulled closer to the center of the muscle cell, actin is connected to the z-line, the z-lines move closer together.
location dictates movement of the muscle
- Motor Neurons
- Controls other organs, release neurotransmitter ACH, changes sarcolemma permiability to ions, generates electrical impulse called an action potential
- Epimmysium and Perimysium are attachment sites for...
- Nerves and blood vessels.
- Myofibril is surrounded by/consists of...
- Surrounded by Sarcoplasm reticulem
Consists of Sarcomeres, z-line to z-line
- Muscle fiber is surrounded by/ consists of....
- Surrounded by Endomysium
Consists of Myofibrils
- Muscle fasicle is surrounded by/ consists of....
- Surrounded by Perimysium
Consists of Muscle fibers
- Skeletal muscle is surrounded by/ consists of....
- Surrounded by Epimysium
Consists of Muscle Fascicles
- Wide flat tendons
- Muscles fascicles are organized six different ways...
- Parallel, convergant, circular, unipennate, bipennate, multipennate
- Origins/Insertions/Actions of muscles
- Origins and insetions are the point on the skeleton where the tendon of a muscle attaches to the skeleton. Origins are usually proximal to insertions.
Actions-Sarcomeres contract to pull the insertions closer to the origin.
- Motor unit
- All the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron
Can range from 2 to 2,000 muscle fibers per moter unit
- Exercise Muscle Hypertrophy
- Exercise causes skeletal muscle to develop more myofibrils per sarcomere. Hypertrophy of each muscle cell makes the entire muscle larger. Increased concentration of mitochondria and glycolytic enzymes
- Sources of ATP in muscle tisse
- Immediate- creatine phosphate
Short term-Glycolysis (lactic acid)
Long term- Oxidative phosphorylation
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