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Glossary of Anatomy 230

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Aponueuroses
Wide flat tendons
Endomysium
Connective tissue, Surrounds individual muscle cells, attached to cell membrane
Fasicle
A bundle of muscle cells
Perimysium
Connective tissue, surrounds fasicles
epimysium
Connective tissue, Surrounds the entire muscle
Myofiliments
Two types--
Actin- thin filiments, darker bands
Myosin-think filiments, lighter bands
Both are proteins that aid in muscle contraction, cause the striped appearance of muscle cells.
Myofibril
Bundles of myofiliments
Sarcolemma
Plasma membrane of muscle cells
Sarcoplasmic reticulem
Covers muscle fibers, releases calcium for muscle contraction
Tendon
Connective tissue, attaches muscles to bones
Z line/disk
The ends of the sarcomere-Actin connects to the z-bands. Where the sarcomeres join together.
H zone
Center of Sarcomere
M Line
Line running down the center of the Sarcomere, myosin anchor to I band.
Thick filament
A-band
Dark striations
Contains bundles of myosin molecules
the tail in anchored to the center of the sarcomere, the M-line
the head of myosin attaches to actin if calcium is present in the sarcoplasm
Sliding filament theory 1
When a skeletal muscle contracts: the I-bands get shorter, the z-lines move closer together, the myofilaments (actin and myosin) stay the same length, but slip past each other), the two myofilaments move along side of each other
Sliding filament theory 2
Myosin attaches to actin, actin is pulled closer to the center of the muscle cell, actin is connected to the z-line, the z-lines move closer together.
location dictates movement of the muscle
Motor Neurons
Controls other organs, release neurotransmitter ACH, changes sarcolemma permiability to ions, generates electrical impulse called an action potential
Epimmysium and Perimysium are attachment sites for...
Nerves and blood vessels.
Myofibril is surrounded by/consists of...
Surrounded by Sarcoplasm reticulem
Consists of Sarcomeres, z-line to z-line
Muscle fiber is surrounded by/ consists of....
Surrounded by Endomysium
Consists of Myofibrils
Muscle fasicle is surrounded by/ consists of....
Surrounded by Perimysium
Consists of Muscle fibers
Skeletal muscle is surrounded by/ consists of....
Surrounded by Epimysium
Consists of Muscle Fascicles
Aponeuroses
Wide flat tendons
Muscles fascicles are organized six different ways...
Parallel, convergant, circular, unipennate, bipennate, multipennate
Origins/Insertions/Actions of muscles
Origins and insetions are the point on the skeleton where the tendon of a muscle attaches to the skeleton. Origins are usually proximal to insertions.
Actions-Sarcomeres contract to pull the insertions closer to the origin.
Motor unit
All the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron
Can range from 2 to 2,000 muscle fibers per moter unit
Exercise Muscle Hypertrophy
Exercise causes skeletal muscle to develop more myofibrils per sarcomere. Hypertrophy of each muscle cell makes the entire muscle larger. Increased concentration of mitochondria and glycolytic enzymes
Sources of ATP in muscle tisse
Immediate- creatine phosphate
Short term-Glycolysis (lactic acid)
Long term- Oxidative phosphorylation

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