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Glossary of Anatomy 1 - Axial Muscles

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Masseter
Origin: zygomatic arch

Insertion: mandible

Action: elevates mandible, closes jaw

Temporalis
Origin: temporal lines of parietal

Insertion: coronoid process of mandible

Action: elevates mandible, closes jaw

Digastric: Anterior Belly
Origin: from inferior surface of mandible at chin

Insertion: hyoid

Action: depresses mandible, opening mouth,and/or elevates larynx

Digastric: Posterior Belly
Origin: from mastoid region of temporal bone

Insertion: hyoid

Action: depresses mandible, opening mouth,and/or elevates larynx

Mylohyoid
Origin: mylohyoid line of mandible

Insertion: median connective tissue band (raphe) that runs to hyoid bone

Action: elevates floor of mouth, elevates hyoid bone,and/or depresses mandible

Sternohyoid
Origin: clavicle & manubrium

Insertion: hyoid bone

Action: depresses hyoid bone and larynx

Sternocleidomastoid: Clavicular Head
Origin: attaches to sternal end of clavicle

Insertion: mastoid region of skull, lateral portion of superior nuchal line

Action: together flex neck, alone bend side to side

Sternocleidomastoid: Sternal Head
Origin: attaches to manubrium

Insertion: mastoid region of skull, lateral portion of superior nuchal line

Action: together flex neck, alone bend side to side

Splenius capitis
Origin: cervical & thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: mastoid process,occipital bone, superior cervical vertebrae

Action: together extend neck, alone rotates & flexes side to side

Spinalis Thoracis
Origin: thoracic & lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: spinous process of thoracic vertebrae

Action: extends vertebral column

Scalenes (anterior, middle & posterior)
Origin: transverse & costal processes of cervical vertebrae C2-C7

Insertion: superior surface of ribs 1-2

Action: elevates ribs, flexes neck, rotates and bends neck

External Intercostals
Origin: inferior border of each rib

Insertion: superior border of more inferior rib

Action: elevates ribs

Internal Intercostals
Origin: superior border of each rib

Insertion: inferior border of the more superior rib

Action: depresses ribs

Diaphragm
Origin: xiphoid process, ribs 7-12 & anterior surfaces of lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: central tendinous sheet

Action: contraction expands thoracic cavity, compresses abdominopelvic cavity

External Oblique
Origin: ribs 5-12

Insertion: extend to linea alba & iliac crest

Action: compresses abdomen; depresses ribs; laterally flexes or rotates vertebral column

Internal Oblique
Origin: lumbodorsal fascia & iliac crest

Insertion: inferior surfaces of ribs 9-12, costal cartilages 8-10, linea alba & pubis

Action: compresses abdomen; depresses ribs; laterally flexes or rotates vertebral column

Transverse Abdominis
Origin: cartilages of ribs 6-12, iliac crest, lumbodorsal fascia

Insertion: linea alba, pubis

Action: compresses abdomen

Rectus Abdominis
Origin: superior surface of pubis, around symphysis

Insertion: inferior surfaces of cartilages (ribs 5-7) & xiphoid process

Action: depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen

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