Glossary of Anatomy 1: Pectoral Region, Axilla and Brachial Plexus, Shoulder and Back
Created by lolly
- What are membranes
- Epithelium + connective tissue
- Cutaneous membrane
- true epithelium=epidermis
- Mucous membrane
- exposed to outside of body. most secrete mucous
- serous membrane (serosa)
- mesothelium-line body cavities-serous fluid
- internal epithelium. endocardium of heart
- synovial membrane
- membrane in joints
- mixed layers of connective tissue
- most superficial fascia. "upon dermis"
- deep to epidermis
- "under dermis" = superficial fascia. fat, nerves, superficial veins
- deep fascia
- aka investing fascia= stocking/sleeve, regoinal
- neurovascular bundle
- veins, arteries, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
- What is the deltopectoral groove and what runs in it?
- the deltoid branch of the thoroacromial artery and the cephalic vein.
- what is the delopectoral triangle?
- bordered by clavical, deltoid and pectoralis major. cephalic vein comes out here and is later joined by the deltoid branch of the thorocoacromial artery.
- shoulder girdle
- Clavicle and scapula
- axial skeleton
- cranium, vertebrae, ribs
- appendicular skeleton
- girdles: pectoral girdle
- Atriculation: manubrium (sternum) and acromion (scapula).
Concave laterally, convex medially.
Acts as struct-fix scapula away from thorax
- atriculations: clavicle and humerus
3 borders: medial, lateral, superior (suprascauplar notch)
3 angle: superior, inferios, lateral (glenoid fossa)
spine: infra/supraspinous fossa
acromion: lateral pt of spine
corachoid process-->pec minor
- what muscles attache to the corachoid process?
- pectoralis minor
- what is the joint and articulation between the clavicle and the scapula
- acromial-clavicular joing (AC) from the acromial end of the clavicle to the acromion of the scapula
- what is the joint and articulations between the clavical and humerus?
- the gleni-humeral joint between the glenoid cavity(fossa) of the scapula and the head of the humerus
- articulations: scapula (glenoid fossa) and ulna/radius
head, anatomical neck, greater&lesser tuercles, intertubercular groove, sirgical neck and deltoid tuberocity.
epicondyles(med&lateral), supracondylar ridges, olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa, trochlea (ulna), capitulum (radius)
- what is the action of the pectoralis major?
- adducts and medially rotates the arm
- what is between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
- the clavipectoral fascia
- what is the origin of the pectoralis minor?
- ribs 3-5
- what is the action of the pectoralis minor?
- inferior and anterior movement of the scapula. *pull up, breathing
- what is the insertion of the serratus anterior?
- inserts into the medial border of the scapula
- what is the origin of the subclavius m.?
- originates at sternal end of first rib
- the loss of innervation to the serratus anterior m. causes what?
- winging of the scapula=retracted
- where is the breast located
- in the superficial fascia, superficial to the pectoralis minor m.
- what is the position of the breast?
- between ribs 2-6, between border of sternum and midaxillary line, lies over portions of pectoralis major and serratus anterior
- order of breast secretion
- lobules (gladular part)-->
- where would metastatic breast cancer cells be most likely to migrate? (ie where would you biopsy?)
- the axillary nodes because 75% of the breast lymph drainage. parasternal nodes are 25%
- what is the deltopectoral groove and what is in it?
- between pectoralis major and the deltoid m. enters the deltopectoral triangle under the clavicle. the cephalic vein runs here.
- what is the primary route pf lymphatic drainage in the breast?
- axillary nodes
- In fractures or dislocations of the clavicle, what structure protects the subclavian vessels from damage?
- The subclavious m., the first rib, the clavicle and the deep cervial fascie protect these.
- what is the most frequently injured bone n the body?
- the clavicle
- what structures peirce the clavipectoral fascia medial to the pectoralis minor?
- 1. cephalic vein: courses pectoralis minoar anteriorly and joins the axillary vein.
2. thoroacromial artery: emerges medial to the pectoralis minor.
3. lateral pectoral nerve
- what muscles are related to the clavipectoral fascia?
- 1. subclavius
2. pectoralis minor
- apex: bw first rib and clavicle
anterior:pec maj/min+deep fascia
posterior: lat dorsi, teres maj., scapular, suscapularis
medial: thoracic wall, serratus anterior,
base: concave skin + axillary fascia
- what is located in the axilla?
- muscles: coracobrachialis, long and short heads of biceps brachii
Axillary sheath: axillary a. and veins, cords of brachial plexus
- the axillary artery is divided how?
- 1st part: from clavicle to medial border of pectoralis minor
2nd: under pec minor
3rd: lateral border of pectoralis minor to inferior border of teres major
- what structures is the axiallry between/under?
- between clavical and inferior border of teres major. divided into sections by pec. minor
- what form an anastomotic loop around the surgical neck of the humerus?
- the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
- what is the axillary vein formed from and where is it found?
- formed by union of the brachial veins and the basilic vein at the inferior border of the axilla
- what is the largest branch of the axillary artery?
- the subscapular trunk
- how can you distinguish the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arties from each other?
- the posterior circumflex humeral artery is bigger and it runs with the axillary nerve (in the quadrangular space)
- damages to the long thoracic nerve would cause what?
- winging of the scapula
- sensory nerve
info to spinal cord
collection of cell bodies: dorsal root ganglion
- motor nerve
info out of spinal cord
collection of cell bodies=nucleus (in the spinal cord)
- dorsal root
- sensory neurons only
- dorsal root ganglion
- collection of cell bodes of sensory neurons
- ventral root
- motor neurons only
- ventral and dorsal rami
- motor and sensory nerves
- what kind of nerve fiber can you find in dorsal root?
- sensory only
- what kind of nerve fibers are in ventral roots
- only motor nerve fibers
- what are in the ventral rami
- sensory and motor nerves
- what is the dorsal rami
- sensory goes in dorsal (as always) but motor also comes out of dorsal. innervates middle of back (spinatous mm)
- compare roots vs. rami
- can find both sensory and motor nerves in the rami.
dorsal root: only sensory
ventralroot: only motor
- what are the muscles comprising the walls of the axilla? what are some other muscles found in the axilla?
- anterior: pectoralis major/minor, subclavious
medial: serratus anterior
posterior: latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularlis
lateral: intertubercular groove and tendon of long head biceps brachi.
other: corobrachialis, short head biceps brachi
- what muscles make the posterior wall of the axilla?
- latissimus dorsi+ teres major+ subscapularis
- what 3 muscles attach to the coracoid process?
- pectoralis minor
short head bicpes brachi
- the cords of the brachial plexus are named for their proximity to what?
- the axillary artery
- what passes through the quadrangular space?
- the axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex artery
- which muscle does the long thoracic nerve innervate?
- serratus anterior
- the thoracodorsal nerve is the same as the --- nerve?
- middle subscapular nerve aka..
- wrapping of nerve: mix of sensory and motor fibers
- where is the clavicle in relation to the brachial plexus?
- between the Trunks and divisions
- what are the superficial back (posterior thoracoappendicular) muscles?
- what are the intermediate back (posterior thoracoappendicular) muscles?
- Levator scapula
rhomboids major and minor
- what are the intrinsic (scapulohumeral) muscles?
- what muscles adduct the arm?
- pectoralis major
- what muscles abduct the arm?
- supraspinatus (starts)
- what innervates the levaptor scapula m.?
- dorsal scapula n. and C3-C4 nn innervate this muscle
- what is the triangle of ascultation
- hear breath sounds because no muscle. trapezius/latissimus dorsi/rhomboids major
- what is the action of the deltoid muscle?
- completes abducton of arm + everything else:
- what is the insertion of subscapularis m?
- less tubercle of the humerus
- what is the action of subscapularis
- medially rotates arm
- name the rotator cuff muscles? what do they do?
stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity
- tendon vs. ligamen
- bone-muscle vs. bone-bone
- describe the sternoclavicular joint
- articulation clavicle-manubrium
saddle type synovial joint
has articular disk surrounded by fibrous capsule
moves ant/post & sup/inf
important ligaments include interclaciular and costoclavicular
- describe the Acromioclavicular joint
- ariculation clavicl-acrominon of scapular
plane type synovial w/ fibrous capsule
ligs: AC lig, corococlaviular lig. (trapazoid & conoid)
small degree rotation,
- a shoulder separation is usually a dislocation of this joint
- AC joint
- describe the glenohumeral joint
- articularion head humerus-glenoid cavity of scapula
shallow ball & socket synovial j
glenoid cavity deepened by glenoid labrum
stabilized by rotator cuff mm
subsacpular bursa continuous with synovial capsule
lig: glenohumeral, coracohumeral
joint is weakest inferiorly
- the rotator cuff mm stabilize what joint?
- glenohumeral joint stabilized by these muscles
- what are the borders of the quadrangular space?
- superior: teres minor
inferior: teres major
medial: triceps long head
lateral: tricaps lateral head (humerus)
- what are the borders of the triangular space?
- superior: teres minor
interior: teres major
lateral: triceps long head
- what is seen in the triangular space?
- the circumflex scapular a. is seen in this space
- what are the borders of the triangular interval?
- superior: teres major
medial: triceps long head
lateral: triceps lateral head
- what run in the triangular interval?
- radial n and the deep brachial a. found here
- scapular anastomosis
- Dorsal scapular a.
Posterior humeral circumflez
Acromial branch thoracoacromial a.
- what does scapular anastomosis do
- allows blood to rech arm in even of occulsion of the axillary a. between suprascaupular artery (of subclavian a.) and posterior circumflex humeral a. (of axillary a.)
- what nerve and artery supply the trapezus m.?
- the accesory spinal nerve (CNXII) and the transverse cervial a. supply this muscle
- group of back muscles that attach the upper limb to the axial skeleton
- superfical back muscles (extrinsic shoulder muscles)
- superficial back muscles
- 1. trapezuis
2. latissimus dorsi
4. levator scapula
- intermediate back muscles
- do respiration
1. serratus posterior superior
2. serratus posterior inferior
- instrinsic muscles of the shoulder
- 1. deltoid muscles
- ligament connecting the coracoid process and humerus
- coracohumeral ligament
- ligament connecting the coracoid process and acromion
- coracoacromial lig
- ligament connecting the clavicle to acromion
- acromioclavicular lig
- set of two ligaments anchoring clavicle to coracoid process
- coracoclavicular lig
- spans intertubercular (bicepital) groove
- transverse humeral ligament
- ligament connecting sternum to the clavicle
- sternoclavicular lig
- ligament connecting the first rib to the clavicle
- costoclavicular lig
- what is the function of the coracoacromial ligament?
- prevents superior discplacement of the humerus
- what is the most commonly injured ligament in a should separation
- acromioclavicular ligament
- why does the should frequently dislocate when traumatized?
- because this joint has the highest degree of mobility in the body
- 95% of shoulder dislocations occur where?
- anterior to the glenoid fossa
- how many cervical vertebrae
- number of thoracic vertebrae
- number of lumbar vertebrae
- number of sacral vertebrae
- 5 fused=sacrum
- number of coccygeal vertebrae
- 4, 3 fused 1 free
- what attaches to the pedicles?
- vertebral arch to the body
- what are lamina
- located between transverse and spinous process on each side
- what do vertebral foramen do?
- form vertebral canal in spinal column
- which processes attach to zygopophyseal (facet) joints?
- superior and inferior articular processes
- what forms the intervertebral foramina?
- superior and inferior notches
- what are the 3 different types of vertebral joints?
- synovial, fibrous and cartilaginous
- describe C1
no spinous processes
articulates with occipital bone
superior articular processes allow flexion and extension of skull
anterior arch allows rotation on dens
- describe C2
has Dens=odontoid process
dens allows roation of C1 on C2
- which vertebrae has the largest spinous process?
- which vertebrae has the second largest spinous process
- what degree of orientation between which joints allows for increased rotation and side bending?
- 45 degree zygaopopyseal joints
- which vertebrae may have bifid spinous processes?
- Describe Thoracic vertebrae
- long, slender spinous processes that angle down
zygapophyseal j. more coconal plane for flexion and sidebending
- what restricts movement of the thoracic vertebrae?
- thin pedicles create a large intertubular foramen, which restricts movement. there are 4 facets that attach to the ribs. the z joints are in more coronal plane??
- how do the ribs articulate with the spine
- via the costovertebral joints to thoracic vertebrae: superior & inferior costal facets --head of ribs. transverse costal facet--articular facet on tubercle of rib (costotransverse lig) (synovial)
- describe the lumbar vertebrae
- largest-weight bearing
z-joing in sagittal plane (to limit rotation)
sup articular processes face medially and inferior face laterally
shorter spinous process project more posteriorly
mamillay processes (1/vertebrae)
short laminae; spaces for lumbar punctures
- where do you do a lumbar puncture and why?
- L3-L5. no spinal cord here, and short lamina create spaces where there is no bone
- where does the spinal cord end?
- L1: conus medullaris
- what do the posterior median sacral crests represent?
- fused articular processes
- what does the posterior intermediate sacral crest represent
- fused transverse processes
- what does the sacrum connect with
- L5 (lumbosacral &sup articular surfaces)
Ilium (articular surface laterally)
- where in relation to the vertebral column are the scapula and the iliac crest?
- end of scapula is T7
top of iliac crest is L4
- where do you do an epidural?
- in the sacral haitus.
- what runs through the suprascapular notch
- the suprascapular artery runs over the transverse scapula ligament and the suprascapular nerve runs under
- superficial back muscles?
- extrinsic back muscles
- serratus posterior superior
serratus posterior inferior
- chest muscles
- pectoralis major
- REAL superficial back muscles
- intrinsic shoulder muscles
- Teres major
- Rotator Cuff muscles
- REAL rotator cuff muscles
- rotator cuff mm
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