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Glossary of Anatomy - Marieb - Muscles and Muscle Tissue - Chapter 9

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Ability
Ability refers to the capability of developing a skill or learning a task
Absorption
The taking in of substances by cells or membranes is absorption.
Abuse
Abuse refers to the continued use of any drug or compulsive behavior despite adverse consequences
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen refers to a nonaspirin analgesic and antipyretic
Acetic acid
Acetic acid refers to a two-compound fatty acid that is used in the synthesis of lipids.
Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine refers to a type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at the axon ends of many neurons. It transmits nerve impulses across synapses.
Acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine is acetylcholinesterase.
Acid
Acid refers to a substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions.
Actin
A protein in a muscle fiber that, together with myosin, is responsible for contraction and relaxation is actin.
Actin myofilament
Thin myofilament within the sarcomere is called actin myofilament.
Action potential
The sequence of electrical changes occurring when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold is called action potential.
Action potentials
Action potentials refer to neural impulses
Active transport
Process that requires an expenditure of energy to move a substance across a cell membrane is referred to as active transport.
Acute
Acute refers to pertaining to a disease with abrupt onset, intense symptoms, and short duration. Compare with with chronic.
Adipose tissue
Fat-storing tissue is called adipose tissue.
ADP
ADP refers to adenosine diphosphate.
Aerobic
Producing energy for physical activity with oxygen is referred to as aerobic.
Aerobic endurance
The length of time a muscle can continue to contract using aerobic pathways is referred to as aerobic endurance.
Aerobic exercise
Exercise in which oxygen is used to produce ATP is aerobic exercise.
Aerobic respiration
Phase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen is aerobic respiration.
Amino acids
Small organic molecules with an amino group and a carboxyl group are called amino acids.
Amitotic
Incapable of mitosis, as in mature skeletal muscle fibers and osteocytes is called amitotic.
Anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids refer to drugs derived from the male sex hormone, testosterone. They promote muscle growth and lean body mass.
Anaerobic
Producing energy for physical activity without oxygen is referred to as anaerobic.
Anaerobic respiration
Phase of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen is anaerobic respiration.
Anaerobic threshold
The point at which muscle metabolism converts to anaerobic glycolysis is referred to as the anaerobic threshold.
Anatomy
Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts is referred to as anatomy.
Androgen
A male sex hormone such as testosterone is called an androgen.
Androgens
Male sex hormones are referred to as androgens.
Androstenedione
Androstenedione refers to an androgenic steroid of weaker potency than testosterone.
Anemia
A condition of red blood cell or hemoglobin deficiency is called anemia.
Anterior
Pertaining to the front is referred to as anterior.
Antibodies
Antibodies refer to substances formed by white blood cells that recognize and destroy antigens.
Aponeurosis
A sheet of connective tissue by which certain muscles are attached to adjacent muscles is an aponeurosis.
Appendix
A small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine is an appendix.
Arrector pili
A bundle of smooth muscle cells associated with a hair follicle, responsible for erection of the hair are referred to as arrector pili.
Arteries
Arteries refer to blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation.
Arterioles
Branches of the arteries are referred to as arterioles.
Artery
A vessel that transports blood away from the heart is an artery.
Aspect
A particular view of the body or one of its structures, or a part that faces in a particular direction, such as the anterior aspect is referred to as an aspect.
Asthma
Condition of the lungs in which widespread narrowing of airways occurs caused by contraction of smooth muscle, edema of the mucosa, and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles is called asthma.
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis refers to a condition in which fatty substances accumulate on the inner linings of arteries.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate, the biological energy molecule is called ATP.
Atpase
Atpase refers to an enzyme that causes ATP molecules to release the energy stored in the terminal phosphate bonds.
Atrophy
A wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue is atrophy.
Attachment
Attachment refers to the enduring affectional tie that binds one person to another.
Autoimmune disease
Any disease in which antibodies fail to distinguish between foreign and self-antigens and attack the bodies own tissues is called an autoimmune disease.
Autonomic nervous system
A portion of the nervous system that controls the actions of the viscera is called the autonomic nervous system.
Axon
Axon refers to a nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body.
Axon terminal
A swelling at the end of an axon that is designed to release a chemical substance onto another neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell is called axon terminal.
Axons
Neuron branches that transmit messages to other neurons are axons.
Biceps
Two-headed, especially applied to certain muscles is referred to as biceps.
Binding
The bringing together and integration of what is processed through different pathways or cells is referred to as binding.
Bone
Rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates is the bone.
Bone mass
Total mineral substance in a cross section of bone, generally expressed as grams per centimeter of length is a bone mass.
Brain
The complex mass of neural cells and related cells encased in the skull is a brain.
Bronchioles
The branching air passageways inside the lungs are called bronchioles.
Calmodulin
An intracellular protein that binds calcium ions and mediates many of the second-messenger effects of calcium is called calmodulin.
Calsequestrin
Calsequestrin refers to a protein found in smooth endoplasmic reticulum that reversibly binds and stores calcium ions, rendering calcium chemically unreactive until needed for such processes as muscle contraction.
Cancer
General term frequently used to indicate any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient is called cancer.
Capillaries
Capillaries refer to the smallest of the blood vessels and the sites of exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
Capillary
Capillary refers to a small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule.
Capillary bed
Capillary bed refers to minute vessels one cell thick that create a junction between arterial and venous circulation. Gas and nutrient exchange occurs here between body cells and the bloodstream.
Carbohydrates
Compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Some carbohydrates are digestible and provide the body with energy. Others are not digestible but still have important functions.
Cardiac
Related to the heart is referred to as cardiac.
Cardiac muscle
Specialized type of muscle tissue found only in the heart is the cardiac muscle.
Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system refers to an organ system consisting of the heart and blood vessels, serving for the transport of blood. Compare with with circulatory system.
Cartilage
Cartilage refers to type of connective tissue in which cells are located within lacunae and are separated by a semisolid matrix.
Catabolism
Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones is referred to as catabolism.
Cell
Cell refers to the smallest subdivision of a tissue considered to be alive
Cell body
A portion of a nerve cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which the nerve fibers extend is called a cell body.
Center
According to Piaget, to focus one's attention is referred to as center.
Central
Located relatively close to the medial axis of the body, as in the central nervous system is referred to as central.
Cephalocaudal
From head to toe is referred to as cephalocaudal.
Cheek
Side of the face forming the lateral wall of the mouth is a cheek.
Chemical energy
Energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances is called chemical energy.
Chloride
Compound containing chlorine, such as, salts of hydrochloric acid are called chloride.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol refers to a lipid produced by body cells used to synthesize steroid hormones and excreted into the bile.
Chromosome
Rod-like structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell’s nucleus during mitosis is the chromosome.
Chronic
Chronic refers to long lasting. Pertaining to a disease that progresses slowly and has a long duration. Compare with with acute.
Cisterna
A fluid-filled space or sac, such as the cisterna chyli of the lymphatic system and a cisterna of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex is called cisterna.
Cisternae
Enlarged portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum near the actin and myosin filaments of a muscle fiber are called the cisternae.
Clitoris
Small erectile organ located in the anterior portion of the vulva is a clitoris.
Concentric
Concentric refers to having the same center.
Congenital
Present at birth is called congenital.
Connective tissue
Connective tissue refers to one of the basic types of tissue that includes bone, cartilage, blood, loose and fibrous connective tissue.
Contractility
Muscle cell's ability to move by shortening is called contractility.
Contraction
Contraction refers to shorten or develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells.
Contraction phase
One of the three phases of muscle contraction is referred to as the contraction phase.
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease refers to angina pectoris, chest pains caused by insufficient supply of blood and thus oxygen to the heart
Creatine
Creatine refers to a nutritional supplement, this compound is synthesized in the body from amino acids or extracted from fish and meat
Creatine phosphate
A muscle biochemical that stores energy is referred to as creatine phosphate.
Cross section
A cut perpendicular to the long axis of the body or an organ is called cross section.
Crystals
Crystals refers to large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
Cycling
Using different steroids over set periods of time to minimize side effects and maximize desired strength- and muscle-enhancing effects is called cycling.
Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm refers to the contents of a cell excluding the nucleus and cell membrane.
Cytoskeleton
A system of protein tubules and filaments that reinforces a cell’s three-dimensional form and provides scaffolding and transport tracts for organelles is a cytoskeleton.
Delusions
False, persistent beliefs unsubstantiated by sensory or objective evidence are delusions.
Depolarization
The loss of an electrical charge on the surface of a membrane is referred to as depolarization.
Depolarize
Depolarize refers to reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about -70 millivolts toward zero.
Diabetes
Any disease characterized by chronic polyuria of metabolic origin is referred to as diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus
High blood glucose level and glucose in the urine due to a deficiency of insulin is called diabetes mellitus.
Diffusion
Random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration is referred to as diffusion.
Digestion
Breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed is called digestion.
Digestive system
System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes is referred to as digestive system.
Disability
A physical or health condition that stigmatizes or causes discrimination, is referred to as a disability.
Disease
The medical concept that distinguishes an impairment of the normal state of the organism by its particular group of symptoms and its specific cause is referred to as disease.
Disease prevention
Actions or behaviors designed to keep people from getting sick are referred to as disease prevention.
Displacement
A defense mechanism in which the individual directs aggressive or sexual feelings away from the primary object to someone or something safe is referred to as displacement.
Distal
Farther from the midline or origin is called distal.
Disuse
Disuse refers to theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is referred to as DNA.
Dominant
Pertaining to a genetic allele that is phenotypically expressed in the presence of any other allele is referred to as dominant. Pertaining to a trait that results from a dominant allele.
Drug
Any substance that, when consumed, alters one or more of the functions of the human body is referred to as a drug.
Dystrophin
Dystrophin refers to a protein comprising only 0.002% of the total protein in skeletal muscle that supports the cell membrane. Its absence causes muscular dystrophy.
Eccentric contraction
Force within a muscle less than that required to lift or move an object is an eccentric contraction.
Elasticity
The tendency of a stretched structure to return to its original dimensions when tension is released is elasticity.
Electrochemical gradient
A difference in ion concentration from one point to another resulting in a gradient of both chemical concentration and electrical charge is referred to as electrochemical gradient.
Electron
A small, negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom is called an electron.
Element
A basic chemical substance is an element.
Elements
Elements refers to substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical processes. Common elements in nutrition include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and iron.
Elevation
Elevation refers to upward movement of a part of the body.
Elimination
Elimination refers to the physiologic excretion of drugs and other substances from the body.
Embryo
A prenatal stage of development after germ layers form but before the rudiments of all organs are present is referred to as an embryo.
Embryonic stage
The baby from the third through the eighth weeks following conception, during which time the major organ systems undergo rapid differentiation is an embryonic stage.
Emotions
Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior are called emotions.
Endocrine system
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones is called endocrine system.
Endomysium
The sheath of connective tissue surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber is called endomysium.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein synthesis occurs is called endoplasmic reticulum.
Endurance exercise
Endurance exercise refers to a form of physical exercise, such as running or swimming that promotes cardiopulmonary efficiency and fatigue resistance more than muscular strength. Compare with resistance exercise.
Energy
Energy refers to the capacity to do work
Environment
Environment refers to conditions and elements that make up the surroundings of the body.
Enzyme
A protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction is referred to as an enzyme.
Enzymes
Organic substances that cause bodily changes and destruction of microorganisms are called enzymes.
Epimysium
The outer sheath of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is called epimysium.
Epinephrine
A hormone the adrenal medulla secretes during times of stress is epinephrine.
Erection
Erection refers to the filling of tissues with blood making the structure rigid and elevated.
Estrogen
Estrogen refers to a generic term for several female sex hormones that promote growth of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle.
Excitability
The ability of a cell to respond to a stimulus, especially the ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce membrane voltage changes in response to stimuli is excitability.
Exocytosis
Exiting from the cell is called exocytosis.
Extension
Movement increasing the angle between parts at a joint is referred to as extension.
Extracellular fluid
Body fluids outside the individual cells are called extracellular fluid.
Extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix refers to nonliving chemical substances located between connective tissue cells.
Extracellular space
Extracellular space refers to the space outside cells.
Eyelid
Palpebra is referred to as the eyelid.
Fascia
Fascia refers to a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle.
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle or nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue are called a fascicle.
Fatigue
Period characterized by a reduced capacity to do work is fatigue.
Fertilization
The union of an egg cell and a sperm cell is referred to as fertilization.
Fetus
A human embryo after eight weeks of development is called a fetus.
Fiber
A slender threadlike structure or filament is called a fiber.
Fibrous connective tissue
Any connective tissue with a preponderance of fiber, such as areolar, reticular, dense regular, and dense irregular connective tissues is referred to as the fibrous connective tissue.
Frequency
Measured in the unit called the hertz, the number of sound waves or cycles per second, determining the pitch of the sound is a frequency.
Function
Function refers to in developmental psychology, action related to a structure, such as movement of a muscle, firing of a nerve, or activation of a mental representation
Fusiform
Spindle-shaped is called fusiform.
G actin
Globular protein molecules that, when bound together, form fibrous actin is referred to as G actin.
Gastrin
Gastrin refers to a hormone secreted by the stomach lining that stimulates secretion of gastric juice.
Gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal tract refers to the main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Gene
Gene refers to portion of a DNA molecule that encodes the information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or TRNA or RRNA. The unit of inheritance.
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal cortex hormones that increase blood glucose levels and aid the body in resisting long-term stressors are referred to as glucocorticoids.
Glucose
A monosaccharide in the blood that is the primary source of cellular energy is called glucose.
Glycogen
A polysaccharide that stores glucose in the liver and muscles is glycogen.
Glycolysis
The conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid during cellular respiration is referred to as glycolysis.
Graded muscle responses
Variations in the degree of muscle contraction by changing either the frequency or strength of the stimulus are called graded muscle responses.
Gradient
A difference or change in any variable, such as pressure or chemical concentration, from one point in space to another is a gradient.
Gross anatomy
Bodily structure that can be observed without magnification is referred to as gross anatomy.
Growth
Growth refers to the process by which a structure enlarges.
Growth factor
A chemical messenger that stimulates mitosis and differentiation of target cells that have receptors for it is a growth factor.
Growth hormone
A hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism is referred to as the growth hormone.
H zone
Area in the center of the band in which there are no actin myofilaments is called the H zone.
Hair
Hair refers to columns of dead keratinized epithelial cells.
Hemoglobin
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen is referred to as hemoglobin.
Hernia
Hernia refers to abnormal protrusion of an organ or a body part through the containing wall of its cavity.
Histamine
A substance released from stressed cells is called histamine.
Homeostasis
A state of equilibrium in which the internal environment of the body remains in the normal range is called homeostasis.
Hormone
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is transmitted in the blood or body fluids is referred to as a hormone.
Hormones
Hormones refer to steroidal or amino acid-based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.
Hydrolysis
Splitting of a molecule into smaller portions by addition of a water molecule is called hydrolysis.
Hydroxyapatite
A type of crystalline calcium phosphate found in bone matrix is hydroxyapatite.
Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia refers to the growth of a tissue through cellular multiplication, not cellular enlargement. Compare with hypertrophy.
Hypertrophy
Enlargement of an organ or tissue is called hypertrophy.
I band
Area between the ends of two adjacent myosin myofilaments within a myofibril is an I band.
Ibuprofen
A nonopiate pain reliever that controls pain, fever, and inflammation is referred to as ibuprofen.
Ice
Ice refers to street name for dextromethamphetamine, a crystalline form of amphetamine that is smokable. It has slightly milder physical effects than methamphetamine hydrochloride but more severe mental effects.
Immune system
A population of cells, including leukocytes and macrophages, that occur in most organs of the body and protect against foreign organisms, some foreign chemicals, and cancerous or other aberrant host cells is called an immune system.
Immunity
Resistance to the effects of specific disease-causing agents is called immunity.
Impulse
A wave of depolarization conducted along a nerve fiber or muscle fiber is an impulse.
Independence
The condition in which one variable has no effect on another is referred to as independence.
Infection
The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues is called an infection.
Infectious disease
Infectious disease refers to an illness caused when a microorganism, such as a bacterium or a virus, invades the body, multiplies, and attacks a specific organ or organ system
Infertility
Inability to conceive after 12 months of trying is called infertility.
Inflammation
A tissue response to stress that is characterized by dilation of blood vessels and an accumulation of fluid in the affected region is called inflammation.
Ingestion
The taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth is referred to as ingestion.
Innervation
The nerve supply to an organ is referred to as innervation.
Inorganic
Chemical substances that lack carbon and hydrogen are called inorganic.
Insertion
The end of a muscle attached to a movable part is referred to as insertion.
Insulin
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans that controls carbohydrate metabolism is referred to as insulin.
Integumentary system
An organ system consisting of the skin, cutaneous glands, hair, and nails is an integumentary system.
Intensity
Brightness is an intensity.
Intercalated discs
Cap junctions connecting muscle cells of the myocardium are referred to as intercalated discs.
Intracellular
Within cells, we have intracellular.
Intrinsic
Arising from within, such as intrinsic blood-clotting factors.
Involuntary
Involuntary refers to not consciously controlled.
Ion
A chemical particle with unequal numbers of electrons or protons and consequently a net negative or positive charge is an ion
Ion channels
Ion channels refers to gaps through the axon membrane.
Irritability
Ability to respond to stimuli is irritability.
Ischemia
Ischemia refers to a deficiency of blood in a body part.
Isometric contraction
Isometric contraction refers to muscular contraction in which the muscle does not shorten.
Isotonic
Condition in which a solution has the same concentration of dissolved particles as the solution with which it is compared is referred to as isotonic.
Isotonic contraction
Muscular contraction in which the muscle shortens is an isotonic contraction.
Kidney
One of the two organs that excrete urine is the kidney. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs approximately 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick.
Kinase
An enzyme that converts an inactive or precursor form of another enzyme to an active form by adding a phosphate group is referred to as a kinase.
Lactic acid
Lactic acid refers to an organic compound formed from pyruvic acid during anaerobic respiration.
Large fibers
Large fibers refer to nerve fibers in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that regulate the pattern and intensity of pain sensations. They close the gate, decreasing the transmission of painful stimuli.
Latent period
Time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of a response in a muscle fiber is referred to as the latent period.
Lateral
Pertaining to the side is called lateral.
Ligand
A chemical that binds reversibly to a receptor site on a protein, such as a neurotransmitter that binds to a membrane receptor or a substrate that binds to an enzyme is referred to as a ligand.
Liver
A large, dark red organ in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side that detoxifies blood, stores glycogen and fat-soluble vitamins, and synthesizes proteins is referred to as the liver.
Load
Load refers to pick up a gas for transport in the bloodstream. The resistance acted upon by a muscle.
Locomotion
Movement from one place to another is called locomotion.
Longitudinal
Oriented along the longest dimension of the body or an organ is called longitudinal.
Lower limb
Inferior appendage consisting of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot is called lower limb.
Lumen
Space within a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or intestine is called the lumen.
M line
Line in the center of the H zone made of delicate filaments that holds the myosin myofilaments in place in the sarcomere of muscle fibers is the M line.
Matrix
Matrix refers to the intercellular substance of connective tissue.
Maturation
The orderly unfolding of traits, as regulated by the genetic code is called maturation.
Maximal stimulus
Stimulus resulting in a local potential just large enough to produce the maximum frequency of action potentials is referred to as maximal stimulus.
Mechanical energy
The energy directly involved in moving matter is referred to as mechanical energy.
Membrane potential
Membrane potential refers to a voltage across the plasma membrane.
Mental
Pertaining to the mind is mental.
Mesoderm
Mesoderm refers to the middle primary germ layer.
Metabolic disorder
Metabolic disorder refers to any disorder in metabolism.
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions in cells that use or release energy is metabolism.
Mitochondria
Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities are referred to as mitochondria.
Mitochondrion
Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration is mitochondrion.
Molecular level
Molecular level refers to in research, investigations of behavior at the physiological or biochemical level.
Molecule
A particle composed of two or more joined atoms is referred to as a molecule.
Motility
Motility refers to self-propulsion.
Motor end plate
Specialized portion of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction is the motor end plate.
Motor nerve
A nerve that consists of motor nerve fibers is a motor nerve.
Motor neuron
Motor neuron refers to a neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to an effector.
Motor neurons
Neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands of the body are referred to as motor neurons.
Motor unit
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers associated with it is a motor unit.
Multiple motor unit summation
A sustained muscle contraction of increasing strength in response to input from many motor units is called multiple motor unit summation.
Muscle fiber
One muscle cell, especially of skeletal muscle is referred to as muscle fiber.
Muscle tension
The force exerted by a contracting muscle on some object is called muscle tension.
Muscle tissue
Muscle tissue is a type of tissue adapted to contract.
Muscle tone
The contraction of some fibers in skeletal muscle at any given time is called muscle tone.
Muscle twitch
Contraction of a whole muscle in response to a stimulus that causes an action potential in one or more muscle fibers is a muscle twitch.
Muscular dystrophy
A group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases is referred to as muscular dystrophy.

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