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Glossary of Anatomy & Physiology

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Created by jconrad

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Atoms, Molecules
Levels of Structural Organization:


Chemical Level


Organelles (tiny organs), cell

Levels of Structural Organization:

Cellular Level


Functional unit composed of tissue(s)

Levels of Structural Organization:

Tissue Level


Functional unit composed of organs

Levels of Structural Organization:

Organ Level


Collection of organ systems

Levels of Structural Organization:

Organismal


The Structure of body parts and their relationship to one another.

Anatomy
The Function of the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities.


Physiology

The study of large body structures-visible to the naked eye. Such as heart, lungs kidneys

Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy
The study of a certain region of the body.

Regional Anatomy
Body structure is studied system by system

Systemic Anatomy
The study of internal structures as they relate to the skin

Surface Anatomy
Structures too small to be seen by naked eye.

Microscopic Anatomy
Cells of the body.

Cytology
The study of tissues.

Histology
Changes that occur in the body throughout the lifespan.

Developmental Anatomy
Developmental changes that occur before birth.

Embryology
Workings of the nervous system.

Neurophysiology
Operation of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular Physiology
What a structure can do with an explanation of it's function.



Principle of Complementary


To touch, feel organs.


Palpatation

To move body parts.


Manipulation

Skin, hair, nails


Body Systems:

Integument



Bones, joints

Body Systems:

Skeletal


Muscles attached to the skeleton. Allows manipulation.

Body Systems:

Muscular


Brain spinal cord, nerves

Body Systems:

Nervous


Pituitary, thyroid & pineal glands, pancreas, ovary, testes & thymus


Body Systems:

Endocrine



Heart, blood vessels


Body Systems:

Cardiovascular



Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, red bone marrow





Body Systems:

Lymphatic





Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs


Body Systems:

Respiratory





Oral, stomach, liver,large & small intestines, esophagus


Body Systems:

Digestive





Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra


Body Systems:

Urinary





Penis, testes, prostate gland, scrotum & duct system (carries sperm to the body systems)


Body Systems:

Male Reproductive





Ovaries, vagina, mammary glands (in breast), uterine tubes, uterus


Body Systems:

Female Reproductive





Ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions


Homeostasis

Taken in diet, chemical substance used for energy & cell bldg

Survival Needs:

Nutrients


Needed for cellular respiration


Survival Needs:

Oxygen



Most abundant chemical substance in body, accounts for 60-80% body weight


Survival Needs:

Water



98.6 F or 37 C


Survival Needs:

Normal Body Temp.



For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs


Survival Needs:

Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure



Skin, integument system protection

Necessary Life Functions:

Maintaining Boundaries


Moving from one place to another


Necessary Life Functions:

Movement



Irritability, the ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them (breathing rate)


Necessary Life Functions:

Responsiveness



Break down of ingested foodstuffs, absorption of simple molecules into the blood.

Necessary Life Functions:

Digestion


Breaking down substances to there simpler bldg blocks, creates ATP


Necessary Life Functions:

Metabolism



removing wastes from the body


Necessary Life Functions:

Excretion



Making a new person, at the Cellular & organismal level.

Necessary Life Functions:

Reproduction


Increase in size of a body part or the organism


Necessary Life Functions:

Growth



Receptor, Control Center & effector
Homeostatic Control System
Regulation of body temp.


Negative feed back.

The response enhances the original stimulus


Positive feed back

Holds the Thoracic & abdominopelvic cavity. Front view of body







Ventral Body Cavity



Front

Anterior
Backside

Dorsal
Toward the midline


Medial

Away from the midline


Lateral

Nearer the trunk or attached end


Proximal

Away from the trunk or attached end


Distal

Toward or at the body surface


Superficial/External

Away from the body surface


Deep/Inetrnal

Divides the body into right and left parts


Sagittal Plane

Divides the body into equal parts right down the midline of the body


Midsagittal

All other sagittal (vertical) planes that offset from the midline.


Parasagital

Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.









Frontal plane/Coronal plane

Runs horizontally, divides the body into superior and inferior parts.







Transverse Plane/Horozontal Plane

Cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes


Oblique Sections

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