Glossary of Anatomy: Introduction to the Human Body and Cells

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What are the four principal types of planes that may be used to divide the body?
Sagittal, Coronal/frontal, Transverse, Oblique
What's the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Anatomy is the study of STRUCTURE and relationships among structures; Physiology deals with the FUNCTIONS of body parts.
Which type of plane divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions?
A frontal/coronal plane.
What are the 6 levels of body organization? Briefly describe each.
1. Chemical level - atoms and molecules and essential atoms for life.
2. Cellular level - group of atoms; cells
3. Tissue level - groups of cells; epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
4. Organs - 2 or more tissues; membranes (serous), fluid and chemical production.
5. System level - related organs with a common function.
6. Organismal level - the largest level; it is any livi8ng individual.
What plan divides the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions?
A transverse plane.
What are the six most important life processes of the body?
1. Metabolism - using O2
2. Responsiveness - nerve impulses
3. Movement
4. Growth - increase in # cells
5. Differentiation - when a cell develops from an unspecialized to specialized state; stem cells
6. Reproduction -formation f new cells
What plane, unlike others, passes through the body or organ at an angle between the transverse and either a sagittal or frontal plane?
An oblique plane.
What are two ways to describe a reclining body?
1. Face down = prone position
2. Face up = supine position
What are examples of some regional names?
1. The head consists of the skull and face; the face = face, and the skull = protects the brain
2. Trunk = chest, abdomen, and pelvis
3. Upper limb (extremity) = attached to trunk, includes shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist and hand
4. Lower limb - attached to trunk, consists f buttock, thigh, leg, ankle and foot

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