Glossary of Anatomical Kinesiology

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consists of bone structures and is divided into sections called the axial and appendicular skeletons
Skeletal System
skull, pelvis, vertebral column
all other bones in the extremities
gives framework to body, provides area of attachment for muscles, produces movement using muscle torques, provides protection for vital organs in body, production units of red blood cells which transport oxygen throughout the body
Purpose of the Skeleton
most common type of bone is the long bone and has weight bearing, and short bones are in hands and feet
raised section of a bone that provides an ideal location for tendon to attach
shallow part of bone
any opening in anatomy
ex. an opening in a bone where nerves go through
A large, rounded articular process
the junction between two bones

the type of this junction dictates type of joint that exists in an anatomical unit
this articulation minimizes movement, amphiarthrodial articulation allows some movement between bones contained in joints
Synarthrodial articulation
articulations that support free movement
Diarthrodial articulation
these are on the outside of the joint capsule bones, are there to hold them together
attach muscle to bone
Amount of movement that can occur before being restricted by surrounding tissue is known as joints mobility and degree of mobility is determined by range of motion
extends from top of head to feet splitting body in right and left sides
(flexion, extension, hypertension moves)
body into front and back side
Frontal Plane
divides body into top and bottom parts
Transverse Plane
is a series of bony segments linked together at a pivot point called a joint
Human skeleton
Composed of brain and spinal cord,
Central Nervous System (CNS)
accounts for 80% of brain’s weight, involved in abstract reasoning and voluntary movement, has right and left cerebral hemispheres. Corpus callosum is nerve cable that crosses this gap to connect the hemispheres so they communicate
Cerebral Cortex
hypothalamus contains nerve centers that control body temperature and rate if burning fat. Above this is the thalamus which integrates sensory info from all parts of the body
contains medulla, pons, cerebellum, and midbrain
has white matter and grey matter. White area contains myelinated fibers
Which are surrounded by a myelin sheath. Carries info to and from the brain. Grey area contraines myelinated nerve fibers
Spinal Cord
Spinal cord can respond without waiting for brain like jerking away from thorn.
This is called spinal reflex. This takes advantage of the fact that muscles work in pairs and one muscle an agonist moves a joint in one direction when it is contracted
Spinal Reflexes
-made up of sensory nerves that relay messages from senses throughout body and back to CNS
-neurons are cells that receive and send messages throughout the nervous system
Sensory neurons go to brain or spinal cord, Efferent neurons carry signal
Peripheral Nervous System
responding for sending and returning messages throughout our nervous system. Language of neural messages is a simple binary off-on code

When an action potential reaches the end of the axon it meets a synapse which is a junction between two neu
Neural Impulses
sensory receptors that receive stimuli that provide a description of environment
sensory receptors that receive stimuli that provide information about current state of our body
detect objects in world around us
cornea, iris, retina, sclera. Everything seen outside of central vision is ambient or peripheral vision
senses of skin like temperature, pain, and pressure sensations
Cutaneous Senses
-perception of individual body parts or the whole body
-sense organs in vestibular system located in inner ear determine ability to perceive orientation and rotary acceleration, allows us to maintain balance
contain the proteins for contraction in muscle cells
the cell membrane that surrounds each muscle cell
Muscle bundles grouped together to form entire muscle and surrounded by connective tissue, connective tissue is tapered at ends of muscle to form tendons
Muscle Groupings
Actin filaments slide over myosin filaments
Sliding Filament Theory
fibers that have limited capacity for aerobic metabolism and are easily fatigued
fast twitch fibers
have capacity for relatively high aerobic capacity and a high resistance to fatigue, and better equipped to shuttle nutrients and elements from the blood to the muscle cells
slow twitch fibers
motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
depends on number of active motor units and rate at which motor units discharge action potentials
Muscle force
is when shortening of muscle tissue causes a joint angle to decrease
is when activation of muscle results in increased joint angle
happen when active muscle shortens

ex. upward positive motion of a bicep curl
Concentric contractions
occur when active muscle lengthens

ex. downward negative motion of a bicep curl
eccentric contractions
the study of cell biology and structure
is the study of tissue sectioned as a thin slice, using a microscope. It can be described as microscopic anatomy
Levels of Organization in Anatomy (small to big)
Organ System

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