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Glossary of Anat- Intro

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dorsum
back of hand or foot
bilateral
having right and left members
unilateral
occur only on one side
ipsilateral
occuring on the same side of the body
contralateral
occurring on opposite sides of the body
deep fascia
dense, organized connective tissue layer, devoid of fat which extends into deeper structures
investing fascia
cover individual muscles and neurovascular bundles
intermuscular septa
parts of the deep fascia that divides muscles in groups or compartments
subserous fascia
deep fascia that lies between musculoskeletal walls and the serous membranes lining body cavities
retinacula
part of the deep fasica that holds tendons in place during joint movement
flexion of elbow
bending arm towards shoulder
extension of elbow
moving hand away from shoulder
flexion of hand
hand movement down
extension of hand
moving hand backwards
flexion of knee
bending at the knee
straightening leg at the knee
extension
flexion of the torso
bending forward from the waist
extension of the torso
leaning back from the waist
flexion of the arm
swinging the arm forward
extension of the arm
swinging the arm backward
flexion of the leg
swinging the leg forward
extension of the leg
swinging the leg backward
flexion of the fingers
curving the fingers
extension of fingers
straightening fingers
flexion of thumb
folding of the thumb towards the pinkie
extension of the thumb
moving thumb laterally away from the hand
adduction of thumb
moving thumb tight to fingers
abduction of thumb
moving thumb out and away from hand
inversion of foot
turing the dorsum of the foot laterally
eversion of the foot
turing the dorsum of the foot medially
protrusion of the jaw
pushing the jaw out
retrusion of the jaw
pulling the jaw back
elevation of the shoulders
lifting the shoulders up
depression of the shoulders
lowering the shoulders
axial skeleton
cranium, cervical vertebrae, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum
appendicular skeleton
bones in the limbs and pelvic and pectoral girdles
long bones
tubular bones like the humerus
short bones
cuboidal bones in the ankles and wrists
flat bones
protective bones like the cranium
irregular bones
odd shaped bones like those in the face
sesamoid bones
bones that protect tendons from excessive wear, usually just the patella
condyle
rounded articular area
periosteum
fibrous connective tissue covering of bones
perichondrium
cartilage elements around the bone excluding the articular cartilage
crest
ridge of bone
epicondyle
eminence superior to a condyle (ex. epicondyles on the humerus)
facet
smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone
foramen
passage through a bone
fossa
hollow or depressed area
line
linear elevation on a bone
malleolus
rounded prominence on a bone
notch
indentation at the edge of a bone
process
projecting spine-like part of a bone
protuberance
projection of bone
spine
thorn-like process on a bone
trochanter
large blunt elevation on a bone
tubercle
small raised eminence on a bone
tuberosity
large rounded elevation on a bone
mesenchyme
embryonic connective tissue that gives rise to bones
intramembranous ossification
mesenchymal models of bone form during the embryonic period, and direct ossification of the mesenchyme begins in the fetal period
endochondral ossification
cartilage models of bones form from mesenchyme during the fetal period, and boe subsequently replaces most of the cartilage
diaphysis
bone shaft
epiphyses
ends of the bone
metaphysis
flared part of the diaphysis nearest the epiphyses
epiphysial plates
cartilaginous growth plates,when growth ends and the plate disappears, the epiphyses and diaphysis fuse to form an epipysial line
nutrient arteries
arteries that arise outside the periosteum, pass into the shaft of long bones via the nutrient foramina, and split in the medullary cavity into longitudinal bronches supplying the interior of the bone
periosteal arteries
arteries in the periosteum that supply most compact bone, so if periosteum is removed, the bone dies
metaphysial and epiphysial arteries
supply the ends of bones; vessels come mainly from the arteries that supply the joints
veins that reach the interior of the bone go through what?
nutrient foramina
What are the three kinds of joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
fibrous joints
articulating bones are joined by fibrous tissue, causing a partially movable joint
syndesmosis
a type of fibrous joint where bones are united with a sheet of fibrous tissue
gomphosis
a type of fibrous joint where teeth are held in place by a peg-like fibrous process which also sends proprioceptive information
cartilaginous joints
articulating joints that are united by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
primary cartilaginous joints (synchondroses)
cartilaginous joints united by hyaline cartilage which permits growth of the length of the bone and allows slight bending during early life
secondary cartilaginous joints (symphyses)
strong, slightly movable cartilaginous joints united by fibrocartilage
synovial joints
joints that have articular cavities with small amounts of synovial fluid
What is an example of a fibrous joint?
sutures of the cranium
What is an example of a syndesmosis joint?
the interosseous membrane joining the radius and ulna
How many different types of synovial joints are there?
six
How do joints receive blood?
articular arteries which arise from vessels around the joint
hinge joint
permit flexion and extension only
pivot joint
allow rotation; a round process of bone fits into a bony ligamentous socket
saddle joint
shaped like a saddle, they are concave and convex where the bones articulate
condyloid joints
permit flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction
plane joints
permit gliding or sliding movements
ball and socket joints
permit movement in several axes: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, medial/lateral rotation; a rounded head fits into a concavity
pennate muscles
muscles that are feather-like in the arrangement of their fasicles (fiber bundles): unipennate, bipennate, or multipennate (L. pennatus, feather)
fusiform muscles
spindle shaped muscles
parallel muscles
the fascicles (fiber branches) lie parallel to the long axis of the muscle; flat muscles with parallel fibers often have aponeuroses
convergent muscles
muscles that have a broad attachment from which the fascicles converge to a single tendon
circular muscles
muscle that surrounds a body opening or orifice constricting it when contracted
reflexive contraction
automatic and involuntary contraction of the muscle
phasic contraction
contraction of the muscles in which work is done
isometric contractions
a type of phasic contraction in which muscle length remains the same, but muscle tension is increased above normal levels
isotonic contraction
a type of phasic contraction in which muscle length changes to produce movement
concentric contraction
a form of isotonic contraction in which movement occurs owing to muscle shortening
eccentric contraction
a type of isotonic contraction in which the contracting muscle lengthens
muscle fiber
the structural unit of muscle, a multinucleated cell
endomysium
connective tissue covering individual muscle fibers
perimysium
connective tissue covering a muscle fiber bundle
epimysium
connective tissue surrounding an entire muscle
motor unit
the functional unit of a muscle consisting of both the motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls
prime mover or agonist
main muscle responsible for producing a specific movement of the body
fixators
muscles that steady the proximal parts of a limb while movements are occuring in distal parts
synergist
muscles that compliment the actions of prime movers ex. by preventing movement of teh intervening joint when a prime mover passes over more than one joint
antagonist
muscle that opposes the action of a prime mover; as a prime mover contracts, the antagonist progressively relaxes, producing a smooth movement
What is an example of a circular muscle?
orbicularis oculi
What is an example of a multipennate muscle?
deltoid
What is an example of a convergent muscle?
pectoralis major
What is an example of a quadrate muscle?
rectus abdominis
What is an example of a parallel muscle?
sartorius
What is an example of a unipennate?
extensor digitorum longus
What is an example of a bipennate muscle?
rectus femoris
What is an example of a flat muscle with aponeurosis?
external oblique
What is an example of a fusiform muscle?
biceps brachii
What are the three layers of tissue in veins and arteries?
tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica intima
What are the three types of arteries?
large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, small arteries and arterioles
large elastic arteries
these arteries have multiple elastic layers in their walls ex. aorta
medium muscular arteries
distributing arteries, walls consist mainly of smooth muscle circularly arranged ex. femoral artery
small arteries and arterioles
narrow mina and thick muscular walls; arterial pressure is controlled by the smooth muscle
arteriovenous anastomoses (AV shunts)
direct connections between small arteries and veins proximal to the capillary beds they supply and drain; they permit blood to pass directly from the arterial to the venous side of the circulation without passing through capillaries
lymphatic plexuses
networks of small lymphatic vessels, lymphatic capillaries, that originate in the extacellular spaces of most tissues
lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)
a nearly bodywide network of thin-walled vessels with abundant valves, originating from lymphatic plexuses along which lymph nodes are located
lymph nodes
small masses of lymphatic tissue through which lymph is filtered on its way to the venous system
lymphocytes
circulating cells of the immune system that react against foreign materials
lymphoid tissue
sites that produce lymphocytes
thoracic duct
drains lymph from the remainder of the body; this duct begins in the abdomen as a sac, the chyle cistern, and ascends through the thorax and enters the junction of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins, called the left venous angle
tract
a bundle of nerve fibers connecting neighboring or distant nuclei of the CNS
What are the three layers of the meninges?
pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater
What are the three connective tissue coverings of peripheral nerves?
endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium
endoneurium
a delicate connective tissue sheath that surrounds the neurolemma cells and axons
perineurium
a layer of dense connective tissue that encloses a fascicle of peripheral nerve fibers, providing an effective barrier against penetration of the nerve fibers by foreign substances
epineurium
a thick connective tissue sheath that surrounds and encloses a bundle of fasicles, forming the outermost covering of the nerve; it includes fatty tissues, blood vessels, and lymphatics
dermatome
unilateral area of skin innervated by the general sensory fibers of a single spinal nerve
posterior rami
branches of spinal nerves, supply nerve fibers to synovial joints of the vertebral column, deep muscles of the back, and the overlying skin
anterior rami
branches of spinal nerves, supply nerve fibers to the much larger remaining area, consisting of anterior and lateral regions of the trunk and the upper and lower limbs arising from them

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