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Glossary of Anat- Back Muscles

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levator scapulae: origin
posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae
levator scapulae: insertion
medial border of scapula superior to root of spine
levator scapulae: innervation
dorsal scapular (C5) and cervical (C3,4) nerves
rhomboid minor: origin
nuchal ligament; spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae
rhomboid major: origin
spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae
rhomboid minor: insertion
triangular area at medial end of scapular spine
rhomboid major: insertion
medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
rhomboid major and minor: innervation
dorsal scapular nerves (C4,5)
rhomboid major and minor: action
retracts scapula and rotates it to depress glenoid cavity; fixes scapula to thoracic wall
levator scapulae: action
elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
trapezius: origin
medial third of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7-T12 vertebrae
trapezius: insertion
lateral third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
trapezius: innervation
spinal accessory nerve, C3 & C4 nerves
whole trapezius: action
elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula
trapezius, descending part: action
elevate pectoral girdle, maintain level of shoulders against gravity or resistence
trapezius, middle part: action
retract scapula
trapezius, ascending part: action
depress shoulders
trapezius, ascending and descending parts: action
rotates scapula upward with shoulders fixed, bilateral contraction extends neck; unilateral contraction produces lateral flexion to same side
serratus anterior: origin
external surfaces of lateral parts of 1st-8th ribs
serratus anterior: insertion
anterior surface of medial border of scapula
serratus anterior: innervation
long thoracic nerve
serratus anterior: action
protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall, rotates scapula
serratus anterior: blood supply
lateral thoracic artery and vein
pectoralis minor: origin
3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages
pectoralis minor: insertion
medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
pectoralis minor: innervation
medial pectoral nerve
pectoralis minor: action
stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall
pectoralis minor: blood supply
pectoral branches of thoracoacromial artery and pectoral veins
latissimus dorsi: origin
spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs
latissimus dorsi: insertion
floor of intertubercular groove of humerus
latissimus dorsi: innervation
thoracodorsal nerve (C6, 7, or 8)
latissimus dorsi: action
extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing
teres major: origin
posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula
teres major: insertion
medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
teres major: innervation
lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
teres major: action
adducts and medially rotates arm
teres minor: origin
middle part of lateral border of scapula
teres minor: insertion
inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
teres minor: innervation
axillary nerve (C5, C6)
teres minor: action
laterally rotates arm; helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
infraspinatus: origin
subscapular fossa (most of anterior surface of scapula)
subscapularis: origin
subscapular fossa (most of anterior surface of scapula)
infraspinatus: insertion
middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
infraspinatus: innervation
suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
infraspinatus: action
laterally rotates arm; help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
subscapularis: insertion
lesser tubercle of humerus
subscapularis: innervation
upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6, C7)
subscapularis: action
medially rotates and adducts arm; helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity
supraspinatus: origin
suprospinous fossa of scapula
supraspinatus: insertion
superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
supraspinatus: innervation
suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
supraspinatus: action
initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles
deltoid: origin
lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula
deltoid: insertion
deltoid tuberosity of humerus
deltoid: innervation
axillary nerve (C5, C6)
deltoid: action
clavicular part flexes and medially rotates arm; acromial part abducts arm; spinal part extends and laterally rotates arm
pectoralis major: origin
clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle
sternalcostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscles
pectoralis major: insertion
lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
pectoralis major: innervation
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
pectoralis major: action
adducts and medially rotates humerus, draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly
pectoralis major: blood supply
thoracoacromial artery, pectoral veins
serratus posterior superior: origin
nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7-T3 vertebrae
serratus posterior superior: insertion
superior borders of 2nd-4th ribs
serratus posterior superior: innervation
2nd-5th intercostal nerves
serratus posterior superior: action
elevates ribs
serratus posterior inferior: origin
spinous processes of T11-L2 vertebrae
serratus posterior inferior: insertion
inferior borders of 8th-12th ribs near their angles
serratus posterior inferior: innervation
9th-11th intercostal nerves & subcostal (T12) nerve
serratus posterior inferior: action
depresses ribs
splenius: origin
arises from nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7-T3 or T4 vertebrae
splenius capitis: insertion
fibers run superolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral third of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
splenius cervicis: insertion
tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C3 or C4 vertebrae
splenius: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
splenius: action
laterally flex neck and rotate head to side of active muscles, extend head and neck
iliocostalis lumborum, thoracis, cervicis: origin
arises by broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
iliocostalis lumborum, thoracis, & cervicis
fibers run superiorly to angles of lower ribs and cervical transverse processes
iliocostalis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
iliocostalis: action bilaterally
extends vertebral column & head; as back is flexed, control movement by gradually lengthening their fibers
iliocostalis: action unilaterally
laterally flexes vertebral column
longissimus thoracis, cervicis, capitis: origin
arises by broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
longissimus thoracis, cervicis, capitis: insertion
fibers run superiorly to ribs between tubercles and angles to transverse processes in thoracic and cervical regions and to mastoid process of temporal bone
longissimus thoracis, cervicis, capitis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
longissimus thoracis, cervicis, capitis: action bilaterally
extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement by gradually lengthening their fibers
longissimus thoracis, cervicis, capitis: action unilaterally
laterally flex vertebral column
spinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: origin
arises by broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of saccrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
spinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: insertion
fibers run superiorly to spinous processes in upper thoracic region and to cranium
spinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
spinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: action bilaterally
extends vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement by gradually lengthening their fibers
spinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: action unilaterally
laterally flexes vertebral column
semispinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: origin
arises from transverse processes of C4-T10 vertebrae
semispinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: insertion
fibers run superomedially to occipital bone and spinous processes in upper thoracic and cervical regions, spanning 4-6 segments
semispinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
semispinalis thoracis, cervicis, capitis: action
extends head and thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column and rotates them contralaterally
quadratus lumborum: origin
medial half of inferior border of 12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes
quadratus lumborum: insertion
iliolumbar ligament and interal lip of iliac crest
quadratus lumborum: innervation
anterior branches of T12 and L1-L4 nerves
quadratus lumborum: action
extends and laterally flexes vertebral column, fixes 12th rib during inspiration
intertransversarii: origin
transverse processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae
intertransversarii: insertion
transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae
intertransversarii: innervation
posterior and anterior rami of spinal nerves
intertransversarii: action
aid in lateral flexion of vertebral column; acting bilaterally, stabilize vertebral column
multifidi: origin
arises from posterior sacrum, posterior superior iliac spine of ilium, aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacroiliac ligaments, mammillary processes of lumbar vertebrae, transverse processes of T1-T3, and articular processes of C4-C7
multifidi: insertion
thickest in lumbar region, fibers pass obliquely superomedially to entire length of spinous processes of vertebrae located 2-4 segments superior to origin
multifidi: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
multifidi: action
unilateral contraction rotates contralateral side; stabilizes vertebrae during local movements of vertebral column
rotators: origin
arises from transverse processes of vertebrae; are best developed in thoracic region
rotators: insertion
fibers pass superiomedially to attach to junction of lamina and transverse process or spinous process of vertebra immediately (brevis) or segments (longus) superior to vertebrae of origin
rotators: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
rotators: action
may funciton as organs of proprioception; possibly stabilize vertebrae and assist w/ local extension and rotatory movements of vertebral column
interspinalis: origin
superior surfaces of spinous processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae
interspinalis: insertion
inferior surfaces of spinous processes of vertebrae superior to vertebrae of origin
interspinalis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
interspinalis: action
aid in extension and rotation of vertebral column
levator scapulae: blood supply
suprascapular a, v; thyrocervical trunk, jugular v
rhomboid: blood supply
cervical neurovascular bundles; branches and tributaries from scapular anastomoses
trapezius: blood supply
transverse cervical a, v; thoracic neurovascular bundles
latissimus dorsi: blood supply
thoracodorsal a,v
teres major: blood supply
scapular anastomoses
teres minor: blood supply
scapular anastomoses
infraspinatus: blood supply
suprascapular a, v
subscapularis: blood supply
subscapular a, v
supraspinatus: blood supply
suprascapular a, v
deltoid: blood supply
thoracoacromial a, v; circumflex humeral aa, axillary v
serratus posterior superior: blood supply
cervical neurovascular bundles
serratus posterior inferior: blood supply
lumbar neurovascular bundles

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