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Glossary of Analysis Term 1

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Motive
the smallest recognizable (repeated appearance) musical idea. It could be pitch, contour, rhythm or harmony. It could appear exactly as it is or varied, generally without cadence.
Phrase
The smallest musical gesture or thought that ends with a cadence. Tonal motion that moves away from an initial tonic, then followed by a cadence.
Subphrase
A shorter musical unit without cadence.
Sentence
A phrase design of 1+1+2 or 2+2+4
Period
A pair of two phrases. 1) Antecedent phrase (weak harmonic conclusion or harmonically open). 2)Consequent Phrase (strong harmonic conclusion or harmonically closed).
Double Period
Group of four phrases that form two phrases of antecedent (IAC-HC) and two phrases of consequent (IAC-PAC)
Repeated Period
A double period that has a melodic structure of a b a'b' or a b a b with cadence of (HC-PAC) (HC-PAC)
Parallel Period
A period in which two phrases share the identical beginning melodic structure or the second phrase is a variant of the first
Contrast Period
A period consisting of two quite different phrases (a b)
Asymmetrical Period
(three-phase period)
Three phases as a unit in which the last phrase of the three ends with PAC. A phrase structure could be a b a, a a' b, or a b b
Hypermeter
Interpreting a group of measures as a group of beats
Phrase Rhythm
Interaction of hypermeter and phrase structure. It consists of two elements.
1) Hypermeter analysis: Identifying a regular metric alteration of strong and weak measures
2)Phrase analysis: Identifying a melody or musical thought that concludes with cadence
Link (lead-in)
A short musical passage that connects the end of one melodic phrase with the beginning of the next. Its ending generally coincides with the downbeat of the new phrase
Elision
The last note or chord of one phrase simultaneously functioning as the first note or chord of the next
Overlap
Voice(s) begin new phrase(s) while other voice(s) are finishing phrases. It creates contrapuntal texture
Coda
Extended tonic area or section at the end of a piece

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