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Glossary of AnP II Ch1

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A structure closer to the head
Superior
(cranial)
Closer to the feet
Inferior
Closer to the buttocks
Caudal
Refers to a structure further toward the back of the body than another structure
Posterior
Refers to a structure further in in front
Anterior
Pertains to a structure colder to the midline of the body
Medial
Refers to a structure further away from the midline of the body
Lateral
A structure further away from the trunk or the body's midline
Distal1
Designates a structure closer to the trunk
Proximal
Describes a structure closer to the body's surface
Superficial
Refers to a structure deeper in the body
Deep
Movement that straightens or opens a joint
Extension
Movement that bends a joint or brings the bones closer together
Flexion
Brings a limb medially toward the body's midline
Adduction
Moves a limb laterally away from the midline
Abduction
Internal rotation that occurs at the shoulder and hip joints
(swings the limb toward the midline)
Medial rotation
External rotation that occurs at the shoulder and hip joints
(swings the limb away from the midline)
Lateral rotation
Pertains only to the axial skeleton (head and vertebral column)
Rotation
Possible only at the shoulder and hip joints
(combines flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction)
Circumduction
Occurs only at the axial skeleton
ex: touching ear to shoulder
Lateral flexion
Occurs when the radius and ulna lie parallel to one and another, turning the palm up
Supination
Occurs when the radius crosses over the ulna, turning the palm down
Pronation

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