Glossary of American Pageant

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What and when was the Treaty of Tordesillas?
1494. It divided Columbus's heathen lands of the New World between Portugal and Spain, but Spain got the most.
Who were the mestizos?
A new race formed after Hispanic soldiers married Indian women. Mix of Indian and Spanish descent.
What were mound builders?
The mound builders of the Ohio River Valley and the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest had large settlements after they started planting corn during the first millenium AD. Cohokia was home to 40,000 people in about AD 1100. By the year 1300, both the Mound Builder and the Mississippian cultures had fallen to decline.
What was three-sister farming?
started in 1000 AD. beans growing on the trellis of cornstalks and squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil. Rich diet provided by this clever farming technique produced some of the highes population densities on the planet (creek, choctaw, cherokee)
What was the black legend?
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
What was Pope's Rebellion?
Indian uprising in 1680 where Pueblo rebels destroyed all Catholic Churches in the area and killed priests and spanish settlers.
Who was Francisco Pizzaro?
Francisco Pizarro -- New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Who was Hernando de Soto?
Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river
Who was Hernando Cortes?
He was a spanish explorer who set sail from Cuba to ho to Mexico. On his way there he found two translators who could speak the language of Aztecs. Came in to Aztec Empire, took gold because Aztecs thought he was a god, and then sieged city on August 13, 1521. He brought customs, laws, crops, religion, language to the region.
Who was Francisco Coronado?
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
Who was Lord de la Warr?
An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. De la Warr brought in "Irish tactics" to use in battle with the Indians. Delaware was named after him.
Who was Handsome Lake?
He was an iroquois prophet who inspired many Iroquois to mend their ways by giving up alcohol, having family values, and adopting old ways. Standard living for today.
Who was Walter Raleigh?
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed because he was in England and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Who was James Ogelthorpe?
James Oglethorpe - founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Who was Oliver Cromwell?
Englishman; led the army to overthrough King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost democratic style untill his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.
Who was John Smith?
John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
What was a Joint-Stock company?
Forerunner of the modern coporation. Enabled investors, and adventurers, to pool their capitol.
What was enclosure?
caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World
What was the House of Burgesses?
The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
What were the slavecodes?
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
What was a longhouse?
The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 1500s-1600s; longhouses served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy.
What were squatters?
People who settles on land without titile or right: Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina.
What is primogeniture?
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
What was the Act of Toleration?
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
What was the Barbados Slave Code?
denied slaves basic human rights and gave their masters complete control over them, including the right to viciously punish them for even small infractions.
What was the Virginia Company?
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: comfirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
What was the Iroquois Confederacy?
The Iroquois Confederacy was nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas.IT was founded in the late 1500s.The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the women's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage. During the American Revolution the Confederacy mostly sided with the British. When the British were defeated, most of the Iroquois had to move to reservations in Canada. The morale of the people sank and they had a dying out. In 1799 a leader, Handsome Lake, tried to revivre the Iroquois and helpedf them to be proud ans hard-working again.
What was the First-Anglo Powhatan War?
De la warr's troops raided Indian villages, confiscated food, burned houses, after tense relations between Indians and English. Ended by a peace settlement sealed by John Rolfe and Pocahantas's marriage.
What was the Second Anglo-Powhatan War?
It was in 1664. Indians tried to attack again, but they were defeated.
What was a Yeoman?
Owner of a small farm.
What was a proprietor?
Someone who the king gave charters.
What was a covenant?
Puritan agreement stating that gov't was made to follow God's laws.
Who were "the elect"?
Souls that sine creation, had been destined by God for eternal bliss.
What was patroonship?
Vast feudal estates that were granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.
What was calvinism?
Dominant theological belief of New England Puritans and some other American settlers by John Calvin. God was all powerful and knowing and there was an elect, and visible saints.
What were freemen?
Adult males who were puritan.
What were visible saints?
Calvinists who were required to show their holy behavior after they had gone through conversion.
Antinomianism was what?
going against the law.
What was the New England Confederation?
It was formed in 1643 to be a joint defense against foes or potential foes. Comprise of the Massachussetts Bay Colony and Plymouth, New Haven, and Valley Settlements (Connecticut). It was the first step in colonial unity.
What was the Massachussetts Bay Colony?
IT was formed by a group of non-separatist Puritans in 1629. Many prosperous people immigrated there. Became the biggest and most influential New England outpost.
What was the Bible Commonwealth?
Name for Massachusetts Bay Colony because of its strong influence on the Puritan belief.
What was the Dominion of New England?
It was created in 1686 by royal authority. It was imposed by London, it included all of New England including New York and New Jersey. Designed to promote efficiency in the administration of the Navigation Laws.
What were the Navigation Laws?
The made the colonies closer to England by stopping American trade with countries not ruled by England.
What was the Great Puritan Migration?
70 thousand refugees left England. Not all were Puritan but most were. 11 thousand went to Massachussetts, most went to Carribean.
What was the General Court?
It was made of representative assembly in Bay Colony, elected by Freemen.
What were Quakers?
Deeply religious people arose in England in mid-1600s. Refused to support Church of England with taxes. They were simple and they believed in equality and passive resistance.
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusett's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
Who was Roger Williams?
He was an extreme separatist who was banished from the Massachussetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
Who was Henry Hudson?
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
Who was William Bradford?
pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
Who was Peter Stuyvesant?
A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands
Who was William Laud?
Archbishop, had antipuritan executions.
Who was Thomas Hooker?
1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Conneticutt
Who was William Penn?
After becoming a Quaker when he was 10, he moved to the NEw World in hopes of Quaker toleration and was granted access to land named Pennsylvania after his father. Pennsylvania had all religions (except Jews and Catholics) and he was peaceful with the Indians. He died after veing convicted of treason and suffereing a stroke.
Who was John Winthrop?
John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
Who was King Philip?
Indian named Metacoim named King Philip by the English. Arranged attacks on English villages throughout New England. By the end of his was, he was killed and beheaded.
Who was Sir Edmond Andros?
Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
What was the Protestant Ethic?
mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and persuing worldly affairs.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
1620- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower before the journey agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
What were Fundamental Orders?
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the firdst constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.

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