Glossary of American National govt chapters 1-4

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the theory that american government is responsive to groups of citizens working together to promote their common interests adn that enough people belong to interest groups to ensure that government ultimately hears everyone, even thought most people to not participate actively in politics.
Shays rebellion
a revolt of farmers in western mass to protest the state legislatures refusal to grant them relief from debt
*tried to shut down court houses so they couldn't be foreclosed
*shut down but this helped lead to calls for a new national constitution
Great compromise
the decision of teh constitutional convention
*bicameral legislature
*senate (two per state) and house of reps (by population)
*also called connecticut compromise
three fifths compromise
decision of teh contstitutional convention that 3/5 of a states slave population would be counted as population when determining # of reps in the house.
a system in which power is constitutionally divided between a central government and subnational or local governments
Separation of powers
the principle of government under which the power to make, administer, and judge the laws is split amonth 3 branches, legislative, executive, and judicial
McCulloch V. Maryland
1. can national government create a bank
2. can states tax the national bank (maryland levied the tax on the bank)

the tax was prounounced unconstitutional

*established supremacy of national govt over the states
*implied powers could be broadly interpreted--gave natl govt much more power - necessary and proper clause
Dual Federalism
The idea that the consitution creates a system in which the natl govt and the states have separate grants of power with each supreme in its own sphere
*the two do no intermingle
Cooperative Federalism
The continuting cooperation among federal, state, and local officialsin carrying out the business of govt
*during great depression
Categorical Grants
-for a specific use
-regulations and strings attached
ex: money given to state to control teen pregnancy

*used by Lindon b johnson
Block Grants
*a system of giving federal funds to states under which the fed govt designates the purpose for which funds are to b used but allows states some discretin in spending
*broader category - more flexible

ex: teen health
*used by nixon
Revenue Sharing
fed gives states money
*like a blank check - states get money to spend however state wants
*done until 1986 --> there was a budget deficit

*used by nixon in new federalism
Unfunded mandates
*federal laws that require teh states to do something w/ out providing full funding for teh required activity
political sociatlization
the process of learning about politics by being exposed to information form parents, peers, schools, the media, political leaders, and the community
a highly organized and coherent set of opinions
Articles of Confederation
*unicameral legislation (states had equal vote)
*natl powers limited (couldn't tax, no natl currency, no military)
*9 out of 13 to pass law
*13 out of 13 to pass amendment
*no unified foreign policy (no president)
Virginia Plan
*by madison
*2 houses - both chosen by population

*favored by large states
New Jersey Plan
* by william patterson

*1 house legislation - each state equal

* prefered by small states
Fed Paper # 10
*people will group w/ those w/ same interests - form factions
*majority factions can be a problem if nothing to contrain them - they will disregard rights of others/minorities
*#1 cause - class and uneven distribution of property
*solutions - either control causes or effects
*to take away causes could take away liberty or give everyone same interests (both impractical)
*new govt can control/channel the effects
*have reps that act liek a filter to refine public opinion/views
*w/ many different competing factions. no one faction will dominate
Fed paper 51
government checks itself

*elections = check
*3 branch system (checks & balances)
Feds vs. antifeds
*feds want large scale commercial economy while AF want small scale agrarian
*feds large and complex govt
AF small scale emocracy - mass can check the elites
*FEDS rep acts as filter, AF reps mirror the majority
*feds human nature cant be changed, self interest
AF go beyond self interest and think of community interest
*AF wanted a bill of rights
US V lopez
gun zone ban around schools
*boy had gun 100 ft from school -arrested
*national law made unconstitutional b/c it had nothing to do w/ interstate commerice
creative federalism
during LB johnsons great society
*money from natl govt went straight to local and non profit organizations
*when given a block grant...a certain portion had to be spent on a specific thing
*states fought it saying they might not have that specific problem
crossover sanction
*federal govt gets states to do something they normally woulnd't do
ex. 21 yr old drinking age- high way funding to make states change drinking age
Reconstruction amendments
three amendments adopted after the civil war
(13)Eliminated slaver
(14) gave blacks the right to vote
(15) guaranteed due process rights for all - equal protection under the law
confederal system
a system in which the central govt has only the powers given to it by teh subnational govts
unitary system
a system in which the national govt is supreme, subnational govt are created by teh natl govt and have only the power it allocates to them
supremacy clause
a clause in the us constitution stating that treaties and laws made by teh n ational government are to be supreme ove frstate laws in cases of conflict
new federalism
during the nixon administration, the policy under which unrestircted or minimally restricted fed funds were provided to states and localities, during the raegan administration, a policy of reudcing fed suport for the states
straw polls
unscientific polls
push polls
a public opnion poll presenting the respondent w/ biased info favoring or opposiing a particular candidate. the idea is to see whether certain info can push voteres away from a candidate or a neutral opinion towards a candidate favored by those doing the poll. they manipulate opinion.

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