Glossary of American History test 2 2
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- what must have people have to win the revolution?
- they needed foreign support
- explain the Declaration of Independence.
- the people felt as if they wanted natural rights and they wanted to make america indep. the congress makes committee that consists of jefferson, adams, franklin, hancock, etc. this document ensured that the indep. states are no longer english colonies but just a part of the US.
- who approved and signed the Declararion of Indep.?
- John Hancock
- What were John Jay, Ben Franklin, and others seeking?
- foreign support to fight the war
- who became america's allies?
- George III
- King of Great Britain throughout the American Revolution
- Who is Baron von Steuben?
- German commander who helped George Washington and Nathanael Greene train the Continental army
- Who is John Burgoyne?
- a british leader who marched with his troops from canada to albany,ny. he planned to meet up with barry st. leger (mohawk river valley) and General Howe (in Hudson Valley)w/ a large force from NY......he fought against the americans in the Battle of Saratoga.
- Who is Horatio Gates?
- American Leader in the Battle of Saratoga. Was known for the defeat of this war.
- What was the end result of the war of Saratoga?
- Burgoyne was attacked and injured on sept. 19th. during the second the battle, he surrenders and he got defeated on october 17th.
- Describe Winter of Discontent at Valley Forge
- Washington takes his soldiers to pennsylvania. suffered from bad conditions: 1/3 of men had forstbite,forced to eat anything bc no food was available for them; sent a letter to congress asking for a wishlist for supplies.
- who won the battle of saratoga?
- america; british were defeated.
- Explain what France has to do with America?
- Ben Franklin persuaded Louis the 16th to grant formal recognition to America. France had signed a treaty granting trade advantages to american merchants and became US's allies.
- What role did Spain play?
- Spain and France were allies so they were also America's allies as well. This became a bigger threat to Britian because the spanish troops fought against the British in West FL destryoing colonies that were a refuge for Loyalist exiles and their slaves
- Describe the League of Armed Neturality.
- British's violation of neutral rights led other European nations to form a League of Armed Neutraily to protect their trade.
- Who was the US navy led by?
- Paul Jones
- what does he do?
- he invades England
- what does the French navy do?
- in 1781 they patrolled the south coast so no brits. can come in. then in the summer of 1781, they move to south VA.
- Who is Lord Cornwallis and what does he do?
- British person who fights in the battle of yorktown.
- What happens in the Battle of Yorktown?
- Cornwallis occupied the peninsula at Yorktown expecting to receive support from the British navy,a French fleet intercepted the British rescuers and blocked an escape by sea. The starving Brits. soldiers ordered all blacks to depart which lead to death of disease and malnutrition.
- What happens at the end of the Battle of Yorktown?
- Lord Cornwallis surrenders on October 19, 1781. he resigned shortly after he surrendered.
- When was the treaty of Paris declared?
- Sept. 3, 1783.
- Which nations were involved in this treaty?
- US,Britain, France, Spain
- what was in the treat of paris? (4 things)
- *King George recognized indep. of the US and agreed to remove Brit. troops from his former colonies and territories.
*it est. national boundaries:Great lakes, west of the MS river, and south to the 31st parallel in FL
*protected New England's historic fishing interests in Canadian waters
*assured both countries rights of navigation on the MS river and guaranteed payment of pre-war debts and compensation for property confiscated during the war
- what year was the articles of confederation made and why was it made?
*made bc congress lacked legitamacy,congress weak bc it was done thru committees,needed delegates to make it stronger.
- what five things are in the articles?
- 1. Equality of states
2. Limited national authority
3. Limited financial resources
4. Boundary disputes with England (Canada)
5. Boundary disputes with Spain (Louisiana & Florida)
- describe state equality
- *league of free, independent, and sovereign states.
- describe limited national authority
- *government had limited powers
*committee had no right to declare war or peace, could never coin or regulate money, and could never appoint the military commanders
- describe the boundary disputes with england (canada)
- *British continued to violate the Treaty of Paris by maintaining forts in the western territory of the United States. The British controlled the Great Lakes, which bordered the U.S. and Canada and the St. Lawrence River, thereby giving them powerful control over trade in the interior of North America. The United States aimed to eliminate the presence of as many of its competitors as possible. Unfortunately, Canada had no interest in joining the United States and remained a British colony.
- describe limited financial resources
- congress could not pass national taxes.
- what was the northwest ordinance?
- it established the republican principle that any states formed from the territory north of the ohio river would enter the US as equals of the original 13.
- in 1787 what did the ordinance do?
- it prohibited slavery in the Northwest territories.
- what were the interstate trade barriers?
- States were solely granted the right to levy imposts on foreign goods, and they freely interpreted this to mean goods from other countries as well as other states in the United States.
- describe the post-war depression
- *the US had an enormous loss of trade with britain so they barred US fish and meat from the west indies and permitted other imports only in british ships.
*american importers lacked sufficient hard money to pay for additional imports.
*few farmers had enough cash to pay all their bills
*business slowed down
- descibed what happened when the US ran into inflated paper currency.
- congress did not have money to pay for those who were in the military (could not give them bounties). the state govt. of MA enacted high land taxes to repay wartime debts and required payment in cash.
- Explain Shay's rebellion.
- war veteran,Daniel Shays, formed an armed citizens' militia and forced the local courts to halt debt collection. he was also a farmer and rebelled along with other farmers in western MA against the US govt. under the articles of confederation.
- who made the virgina plan?
- Edmund Randolph
- name the 7 proposals of the virginia plan.
- primary power had a two house national legislature in which members of the lower house would be chosen on the basis of each state's population and the lower house would elect the members of the upper house or senate
- who made the new jersey plan?
- william paterson
- name the 5 proposals of the new jersey plan
- a single-house legislature in which each state had an equal vote and provided for separetly chosen judicial and executive branches.
- what is the conneticut compromise?
- the election of a lower house of representatives based on population and the creation of an upper house or senate in which each state govt. chose two delegates who would vote as indiv.; lower house represents the people and the senate would repres. the states
- what are the three branches of govt. and what role do they play?
- expalain what happened during the ratification process.
- the delegates included in the new Constitution a section outlining a new plan for ratification. Once nine of the thirteen states had ratified the document (at special conventions with elected representatives), the Constitution would replace the Articles in those nine states
- who were the federalists?
- favored the Constitution and a strong central government. The Federalists counted among their number many of the wealthier, propertied, and more educated Americans
- avored a weaker central government in favor of stronger state legislatures. Not all of them liked the Articles of Confederation, but none of them wanted the new Constitution to be ratified. Generally from the poorer classes in the West
- what were the bill of rights?
- it guaranteed freedom of speech,press, and religion;allowed states to form citizen militias;assured right of trial by jury;protected citizens from unreasonable police serach & seizure;and permitted individuals to refuse to give self-incriminating testimony
- what was the judiciary act of 1789?
- it established a national legal system creating district and appellate coursts as well as the supreme court.
- how did washington become pres.? what year did this happen? who was the first VP?
- Members of the Electoral College unanimously chose the war hero George Washington because of his popularity and keen leadership skills. Boston lawyer John Adams was chosen to be the first vice president in 1789
- what was the whiskey rebellion?
- to keep the tarriffs low, Hamilton proposed a domestic excise tax on whiskey. in 1791, small farmers were struggling so they protested the new taxes by forming outlaw militias to harass govt. tax collectors. Washington summoned the army in 1794 to suppress the rebellion. congress repealed the tax in 1800.
- what does the 11th amendment state?
- clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits the ability of citizens to sue states
- what was the foreign affair with england?
- england had not removed their troops from american land but then john jay made a treaty saying that there will be free trade. 4 ships are allowed a year to the west indies.england agreed to search for runwaway soldiers from the brit. navy.
- what is the foreign affair with france?
- the french and the US wanted to follow the neutral policy since france was going through a period of time called the reign of terror.
- what is the foreign affair with spain?
- france and spain became enemies; france said they will reclaim LA if US fights the spanish. Pinkney was sent to spain and made a treaty stating that spain would recognize MS river in 2 parts. this gave the US a right of deposit.
- who became president after washington and who was the VP?
- adams and jefferson
- why were the relations with the french getting worse?
- french privateers attacked US ships in the west indies, adams dispatched negotiators to France in 1797 to reach agreement about neutral rights; adams tried to name new ambassador to france, he tried to send commissoners to france,congress made new dept. of US navy so the french can't defeat America
- alien and sedition acts
- a crime to critise american govt., pres, or flag..person would either get fined or locked up
- In response to continued French aggression at sea, and outraged at the XYZ Affair, Congress began what became known as the Quasi-war.54 ships were armed and sent to protect Americans at sea. France and America never officially declared war upon one another, but the conflict lasted from 1798 until 1800, during which time the US navy seized 93 French privateers while only losing one ship.
- XYZ affair
- instead of demanding monetary damages, the americans would do well to offer a bribe to 3 french agents
- george logan
- one jeff.'s associates and angered adams. came up with the logan act = forbid private citizens to get involved with foregin policy unless pres. gives them permission to
- where did the capital move to?
- DC; gov. leaves PENN. in 1800
- describe the elected of jefferson.
- Jeff. and Burr had same # of votes, choice was made by the sitting HOR and chose Jeff.; to prevent anything like this, they made the 12th amend (separated electoral college balloting for pres. and VP)
- what was the judiciary act of 1801?
- it expanded the federal courts in time for adams to fill the vacant positions with federalists judges just before his term expired.
- marbury v. madison
- * a writ of mandamus had to be delieverd from madison to marbury...never happened
* law states, marbury needed his commission; did not get proper jurisidction
*then was later declared "unconstitutional"
* jeff. endorsed priniciple of judicial review
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