Glossary of American History Part 3 2
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- What's a cold war?
- Hostility but no fighting
- Who was the Cold war between?
- United States and Soviet Union
- What were 4 main points of the Yalta Conference?
- 1. United Nations
2. Big three
3. Germany split in two
4. Berlin split
- What happened to the leauge of nations?
- It was replaced by the united nations
- Who were the Big Three?
- FDR --> US
Joseph Stalin --> SU
Winston Churchill --> GB
- How would the Big Three help Europe get back on its feet?
- Allies would take Western Europe
Soviet Union would take Eastern Europe
- How would Germany be split?
- Allies would take Western Germany
SU would take Eastern Germany
- How would Berlin be split?
- East Berlin - SU
West Berlin - Allies
- Why was there tension between the SU and US?
- Soviet Union had no intention of leaving Europe
- What type of government did the SU set up?
- Puppet Government
- How did the SU use a pupppet government?
- Took over half of Europe
Had been an ally, but now were traitors
- Why did the US fear the SU?
- 1. They were communist
2. They may become a super power
3. They wanted more territory
- How could the SU become a super power?
- Atomic bomb
- What was the foreign policy of the US?
- What's containment?
- Stop the spread of communism
- What journal first used the term Containment?
- Journal of Foreign Affairs
- What was title/author of the article in Foreign Affairs?
- "The Sources of Soviet Conflict"
- What was the name of the plan to restore Europe?
- Marshall Plan
- Who was teh Marshall plan named after?
- George Marshall
- What were the 3 goals of the Marshall plan?
- 1. Humanitiarian (Help those who need help)
2. Help the European Economy (wanted them to buy American goods)
3. HOped that the economy covered, they would not turn to communism.
- Did the Marshall plan succeed?
- WHo was penicillin discovered by?
- Alexander Fleming
- What was Fleming looking for when he found mold?
- Something to kill bacteria
- What is DDT?
- A pesticide
- What were the benfits of DDT?
- 1. Agricultural prodcution increased
2. Prevented disease (malaria)
- WHo created the Polio Vaccine?
- Jonas Salk
- WHat law created the Interstate Highway System?
- Federal Highway Act
- Why was the INterstate Highway System built?
- To move troops from one place to another
- Who was the driving force behind the Interstate Highway System>
- How did television change America?
- 1. Made sports big business
2. Tremendous impact on the war in Vietnam
3. "brought home" The Civil Rights movement
- Why was there a rise in comsumer credit?
- 1. Introduction of the credit card
2. Payment plans
- Who was the Space Race between?
- United States
- What was the first Sattelite to orbit the earth?
- Who launced Sputnik?
- Soviet Union
- Why did the launching of Sputnik scare the US?
- 1. Could observe the enemy
2. Could arm it with weapons
- What was the space program the US created?
- What's NASA?
- National Aeronautics Space Administration
- What was teh goal of the space race?
- Put a man on the moon
- What was NASA's program to accomplis its goal?
- How long did Apollo take?
- About 10 years
- What ship landed on the moon?
- Apollo 11
- Who were the three people in Apollo 11?
- 1. Buzz Aldrin
2. Neal Armstrong
3. Michael Collins
- What did Armstrong say as he stepped on the moon?
- "This is one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
- What did the Space Race creat a need for?
- Which two groups were struggling for Vietnam?
- 1. France
- What was the Vietminh and who was the leader?
- Communist party within Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
- What was the Geneva conference about?
- Asked what was going to happen in Vietnam
- What 4 points were made in the Geneva conference?
- 1. Vietnam would be split into two parts
2. It would be a temporary split
3. There would be a national election to determine a national leader
4. It would be re-unified
- What two parts would Vietnam be split into?
- North Vietnam
- What would be the capitol of North Vietnam?
- Who would lead North Vietnam?
- Ho Chi Minh
- How was the economy of N. Vietnam?
- Poor, overcrowded, bad farming land
- What would be the capitol of South Vietnam?
- Who would lead S. Vietnam?
- Ngo Din Diem
- How was S. Vietnam's economy?
- Good, far less crowded, better farming land
- Who did the US support in Vietnam and why?
- Ngo Din Deim, more democratic
- What happened in the 1956 elections of Vietnam?
- It was obvious Minh was going to win, so Diem announced that no national election would take place.
- In 1960, fighting began in Vietnam between...
- North Vietnam and South Vietnam
- Who were the communists of South Vietnam that hated Ngo Din Diem?
- Viet Cong
- Who was the President of the US during the first part of Vietnam?
- John F. Knnedy
- What was The White Paper and what did it say>
- It was a report of what was going on in Vietnam
It said "The US needs to get heavily invovled in Vietnam NOW"
- How was the US going to get involved in Vietnam?
- Send 1000s of troops to support Ngo Din Diem
- What were JFK's advisors telling him to do?
- Stay out of Vietnam
- What was the main reason Ngo Din Diem was overthrown?
- He had sent troups to kill people in Buddhist Monastaries
- What ship was fired on by N. Vietnam?
- The Maddox
- Where was the Maddox fired on?
- Gulf of Tonkin
- What was considered an act of war to the Americans?
- Firing of the Maddox
- What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
- The president may take all necessary precautions to protect American Soldiers and to ensure that this will never happen again (Maddox)
- Who was the president during the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
- Lyndon Johnson
- What did Johnson do as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?>
- Deployed soldiers
- What was the goal of the 80,000 soldiers that Johnson sent?
- Take out N. Vietnam
Get rid of the Viet Cong in S. Vietnam
- What were the three main reasons most Americans believed we should get out of Vietnam?
- 1. It was a no-win situation
2. We had stopped elections from taking place
3. It wasn't worth American lives simply to prevent the spread of communism
- Who were the main Protesters of the Vietnam era?
- 1. College Students
- How did musicians protest?
- Anti-war songs
- What did the Communists launch that killed hundreds of American soldiers?
- Tet Offensive
- What was shocking about the election of 1968?
- Johnson announced that he wouldn't be running for re-election
- Who ran in the election of 1968?
- Dem: Hubert Humphrey
Rep: Richard Nixon
- Who won the election of 1968?
- What's the term for Nixon's plan to get America out of Vietnam?
- What were the two goals of Vietnamization?
- 1. Save American lives
2. Still contain communism
- How were the goals of Vietnamization to be accomplished?
- 1. Train South Vietnamese citizens to fight against the communists
2. Begin pulling out our troops
- Why didn't America like the Vietnamization plan?
- They thought it'd take too much time
- The biggest protest event:
Where did it take place?
- Kent State University, Ohio
- What happened at the Kent State protest?
- The ROTC building was burned
- What did the government do about Kent State protests?
- Sent in the National Guard
- What did the National Guard do in the Kent State protests?
- Open fired on the protesters
- Many Americans feared America was teetering on the edge of...
- ...A violent revolution
- What was the name of the Peace Settlement of 1973?
- Paris Peace Accords
- Who took part in the Paris Peace Accords?
- N. Vietnam
- What were the three facets of the Paris Peace Accords?
- 1. Ceasefire
2. Release of all prisoners
3. US would pull out
- What happened after the Paris Peace Accords?
- US pulled out and N. Vietmam took over S. Vietnam, they turned communist
- What was the significance of Vietnam?
- 1. 60,000 American soldiers died
2. Created a lack of trust and respect for the government
3. Created a fear of repeating the disaster
- Why was the Civil war fought?
- TO maintain the union
- What 3 amendments were passed following the Civil War?
- 13th, 14th and 15th
- What did the 13th amendment do?
- abolished slavery
- What did the 14th amendment do?
- 1. Blacks now citizens of the US (Before: "special property")
2. All citizens will have equal protection under the law (equal rights)
- What did the 15h amendment do?
- Can't deny someone the right to vote because of their race
- What 2 types of equality did we discuss?
- De jure (equality before the law)
De facto (equality in practice)
- What was the term used for laws Whites in the south passed to discriminate against blacks?
- Jim Crow Laws
- What were two Jim Crow Laws we studied?
- 1. Literacy Tests
2. Poll Tax
- What law made "Separate but equal"?
- Plessy V. Ferguson
- What did "Separate but equal" say?
- Segregation is legal, as long as there are equal accomodations
- What were 5 factors that brought about a slow change in the way blacks were percieved?
- 1. Jackie Robinson
3. Blacks began to demand better treatment
4. Many more protest marches were held
5. Actions taken by the government
- What team did Jackie Robinson play for?
- Brooklyn Dodgers
- Why did people think Robinson would fail as a base ball player?
- "whites are superior"
- What conclusion did Americans come to about Jackie Robinson?
- If a black man can play baseball as well as a qhite man, maybe they are equal to whites ... therefore they should be treated equally.
- What did people see that was shocking?
- Duplicity - 2-faced
- What type of duplicity were Americans seeing?
- Whites called German's "racist"
White Americans were discriminating against blacks
- Who led the revolution of demanding better treatment for blacks?
- Rosa Parks
Martin Luther King, Jr.
- King/Parks led a boycott of...
- ...the busline
- What types of protests occured?
March on Washington
- What 5 government actions were discussed?
- 1. Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka
2. 24th Amendment
3. Civil Rights act of 1964
4. Voting Rights Act of 1965
5. Civil Rights Act of 1968
- What did Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka decide?
- In public education, "separate but equal" is no longer allowable.
- What were 5 differences between white and black schools?
- 1. Buildings
2. Teachers (college degrees)
- What did schools have to do after Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka?
- What did the 24th Amendment do?
- Outlawed poll taxes
- What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?
- 1. No racial discrimination in businesses open to the public
2. No racial discrimination in employment
- WHat did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do?
- Outlawed literacy tests
- What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do?
- Mad it illegal to discriminate someone based on race in the buying, selling and renting of property.
- Who ran in the election of 1960?
- John F. Kennedy, Democratic
Richard Nixon, Republican
- What were JFK's basic issues in the election?
- 1. Eisenhower/Nixon had allowed the SU to have a nuclear advantage over the US
2. Blamed E/N for allowing Cuba to turn communist
- Who led the communist revolution in Cuba?
- Fidel Castro
- What were Nixon's basic issues in the election?
- 1. JFK was inexperienced
2. He would fight communism
- Why did people believe JFK would lose the election?
- His religion (Catholic)
- What did people fear about JFK's religion?
- That his loyalty would be ultimately to the Pope rather than to the US
- What were the two main factors that swayed the election of 1960?
- 1. Debates
2. Eisenhower didn't endorse Nixon until about 2 weeks before the election
- The debates of 1960 were the first time debates were...
- Why did JFK look strong and confident?
- He was tan
- Why did the endorsement of Eisenhower matter?
- People respected him
- Who won the election of 1960?
- What group planned the Bay of Pigs?
- When was the Bay of Pigs originally planned?
- During Eisenhower's term
- Who gave the OK to go ahead with the Bay of Pigs?
- WHo had the CIA been training for the Bay of Pigs?
- Cuban exiles
- How many exiles were trained?
- Who did the exiles expect to get support from?
- 1. Fellow Cubans
2. US would provide air support
- Who did the exiles get help from?
- no one
- What was the significance of the Bay of Pigs?
- 1. Huge embarrasment to JFK and the US
2. Made Castro absolutely hate the US
3. Castro developed closer relations to the Soviet Union
4. Led to the Cuban Missile Crisis
- What separated East and West Berlin?
- A wall
- What was the Berlin wall a worldwide symbol of?
- The concflict between the communist world and the free world
- In which country did the US put missiles aimed that the SU?
- What did people think about America's weapons in Turkey?
- They were useless
- How did The SU counter America's missiles in Turkey
- put missiles in Cuba
- What appeared in the photographs taken the first time of Cuba?
- Soviet troops building some kind of missile installation
- What did further photos show?
- Some missile sites were operational
- When JFK went on TV, what three things did he tell America?
- 1. The SU had missiles in Cuba that were ready for use
2. The US would set up a quarentine around Cuba
3. We are ready and prepared for every eventuality (war)
- Who was the leader of the SU suring the CMC?
- Nikita Khrushchev
- Why didn't Kr. just pull missiles out?
- He would look weak
- What agreement did Khr. make originally?
- They would pull the missiles out if the us would promise not to attack cuba again.
- What did Khr. add to his agreement?
- The US must pull its missiles out of Turkey
- What did JFK respond to publicily?
- We'll accept the SU's offer to withdraw from Cuba and we'll promise not to invade CUba
- Who privately contacnted the SOviets?
- Robert Kennedy
- What was Robert Kennedy's position>
- Attorney General for the US
- What did R. Kennedy tell the SU?
- The US would agree to pull the missiles out of turkey
- What was the significance o the CMC?
- 1. Soviet Union backed down in the eyes of the world
2. Khrushchev was removed from pwoer
3. Climax of the cold war, we discovered we needed to get along
- What is De'tente?
- Lessening of tension
- Who ran in the elections of 1972?
- Richard Nixon, Rep
George McGovern, Dem
- Why did the police arrest 5 people?
- They were found breaking in to offices rented by the Democratic National Committee
- Where did the Democratic Nation Committe have its offices?
- Watergate Hotel
- What was common in those breaking into Watergate?
- Former members of CREEP
- What is CREEP?
- Committee to Re-Elect the President
- What party was CREEP?
- Republicans mostly
- What did Nixon say about the watergate breaking?
- "I had nothing to do with the break-in, nor did my staff."
- Who won the election of 1972
- Nixon, by a landslide
- Who was the first to come forward?
- James McCord
- What happened after McCord came forward>
- Many more did
- WHo was the counsel to the president?
- John Dean
- What did John Dean tell the senate?
- Attorney General John Mitchell had ordered the break-in
- What were the trials of watergate people calleD?
- Watergate Hearings
- What were people beginning to believe about Nixon?
- He was trying to prevent an investigation of watergate
- WHo was the first special prosecuter appointed by Nixon?
- Archibald Cox
- What did Cox ask Nixon to do?
- Turn in all of th the tapes
- What excuse did Nixon give for not turning in tapes?
- "executive privilege"
- What happend when nixon wouldn't hand over tapes to cox?
- Cox sued him, nixon fired cox
- WHo was Nixon's second special prosecutor?
- Leon Jaworski
- Who ran the impeachment investication?
- House Judiciary Committee
- What's impeach?
- To accuse of wrongdoing
- WHy were Nixon's transcripts suspicious?
- They were edited
They were transcripts, not originals
- What was the name of the court hearing of Nixon?
- United States v. Richard Nixon
- What happend in US v. RN?
- Nixon was ordered to turn the tapes over to the special prosecutor
- What did the House Judiciary Committee reccomend?
- Impeachment of Nixon
- What was the "Smoking Gun"?
- Nichon had ordered the FBI to stop the investigation of Watergate
- How did Nixon's carreer end?
- he resigned
- What was the significance of Watergate?
- Created a sense of mistrust in the governmetn
- How many days do I have left of school?
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