Glossary of American History Part 3 2

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What's a cold war?
Hostility but no fighting
Who was the Cold war between?
United States and Soviet Union
What were 4 main points of the Yalta Conference?
1. United Nations
2. Big three
3. Germany split in two
4. Berlin split
What happened to the leauge of nations?
It was replaced by the united nations
Who were the Big Three?
FDR --> US
Joseph Stalin --> SU
Winston Churchill --> GB
How would the Big Three help Europe get back on its feet?
Allies would take Western Europe
Soviet Union would take Eastern Europe
How would Germany be split?
Allies would take Western Germany
SU would take Eastern Germany
How would Berlin be split?
East Berlin - SU
West Berlin - Allies
Why was there tension between the SU and US?
Soviet Union had no intention of leaving Europe
What type of government did the SU set up?
Puppet Government
How did the SU use a pupppet government?
Took over half of Europe
Had been an ally, but now were traitors
Why did the US fear the SU?
1. They were communist
2. They may become a super power
3. They wanted more territory
How could the SU become a super power?
Atomic bomb
What was the foreign policy of the US?
What's containment?
Stop the spread of communism
What journal first used the term Containment?
Journal of Foreign Affairs
What was title/author of the article in Foreign Affairs?
"The Sources of Soviet Conflict"
George Kennen
What was the name of the plan to restore Europe?
Marshall Plan
Who was teh Marshall plan named after?
George Marshall
What were the 3 goals of the Marshall plan?
1. Humanitiarian (Help those who need help)
2. Help the European Economy (wanted them to buy American goods)
3. HOped that the economy covered, they would not turn to communism.
Did the Marshall plan succeed?
WHo was penicillin discovered by?
Alexander Fleming
What was Fleming looking for when he found mold?
Something to kill bacteria
What is DDT?
A pesticide
What were the benfits of DDT?
1. Agricultural prodcution increased
2. Prevented disease (malaria)
WHo created the Polio Vaccine?
Jonas Salk
WHat law created the Interstate Highway System?
Federal Highway Act
Why was the INterstate Highway System built?
To move troops from one place to another
Who was the driving force behind the Interstate Highway System>
How did television change America?
1. Made sports big business
2. Tremendous impact on the war in Vietnam
3. "brought home" The Civil Rights movement
Why was there a rise in comsumer credit?
1. Introduction of the credit card
2. Payment plans
Who was the Space Race between?
United States
Soviet Union
What was the first Sattelite to orbit the earth?
Who launced Sputnik?
Soviet Union
Why did the launching of Sputnik scare the US?
1. Could observe the enemy
2. Could arm it with weapons
What was the space program the US created?
What's NASA?
National Aeronautics Space Administration
What was teh goal of the space race?
Put a man on the moon
What was NASA's program to accomplis its goal?
How long did Apollo take?
About 10 years
What ship landed on the moon?
Apollo 11
Who were the three people in Apollo 11?
1. Buzz Aldrin
2. Neal Armstrong
3. Michael Collins
What did Armstrong say as he stepped on the moon?
"This is one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
What did the Space Race creat a need for?
Which two groups were struggling for Vietnam?
1. France
2. Vietminh
What was the Vietminh and who was the leader?
Communist party within Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
What was the Geneva conference about?
Asked what was going to happen in Vietnam
What 4 points were made in the Geneva conference?
1. Vietnam would be split into two parts
2. It would be a temporary split
3. There would be a national election to determine a national leader
4. It would be re-unified
What two parts would Vietnam be split into?
North Vietnam
South Vietnam
What would be the capitol of North Vietnam?
Who would lead North Vietnam?
Ho Chi Minh
How was the economy of N. Vietnam?
Poor, overcrowded, bad farming land
What would be the capitol of South Vietnam?
Who would lead S. Vietnam?
Ngo Din Diem
How was S. Vietnam's economy?
Good, far less crowded, better farming land
Who did the US support in Vietnam and why?
Ngo Din Deim, more democratic
What happened in the 1956 elections of Vietnam?
It was obvious Minh was going to win, so Diem announced that no national election would take place.
In 1960, fighting began in Vietnam between...
North Vietnam and South Vietnam
Who were the communists of South Vietnam that hated Ngo Din Diem?
Viet Cong
Who was the President of the US during the first part of Vietnam?
John F. Knnedy
What was The White Paper and what did it say>
It was a report of what was going on in Vietnam
It said "The US needs to get heavily invovled in Vietnam NOW"
How was the US going to get involved in Vietnam?
Send 1000s of troops to support Ngo Din Diem
What were JFK's advisors telling him to do?
Stay out of Vietnam
What was the main reason Ngo Din Diem was overthrown?
He had sent troups to kill people in Buddhist Monastaries
What ship was fired on by N. Vietnam?
The Maddox
Where was the Maddox fired on?
Gulf of Tonkin
What was considered an act of war to the Americans?
Firing of the Maddox
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
The president may take all necessary precautions to protect American Soldiers and to ensure that this will never happen again (Maddox)
Who was the president during the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
Lyndon Johnson
What did Johnson do as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?>
Deployed soldiers
What was the goal of the 80,000 soldiers that Johnson sent?
Take out N. Vietnam
Get rid of the Viet Cong in S. Vietnam
What were the three main reasons most Americans believed we should get out of Vietnam?
1. It was a no-win situation
2. We had stopped elections from taking place
3. It wasn't worth American lives simply to prevent the spread of communism
Who were the main Protesters of the Vietnam era?
1. College Students
2. Musicians
How did musicians protest?
Anti-war songs
What did the Communists launch that killed hundreds of American soldiers?
Tet Offensive
What was shocking about the election of 1968?
Johnson announced that he wouldn't be running for re-election
Who ran in the election of 1968?
Dem: Hubert Humphrey
Rep: Richard Nixon
Who won the election of 1968?
What's the term for Nixon's plan to get America out of Vietnam?
What were the two goals of Vietnamization?
1. Save American lives
2. Still contain communism
How were the goals of Vietnamization to be accomplished?
1. Train South Vietnamese citizens to fight against the communists
2. Begin pulling out our troops
Why didn't America like the Vietnamization plan?
They thought it'd take too much time
The biggest protest event:
Where did it take place?
Kent State University, Ohio
What happened at the Kent State protest?
The ROTC building was burned
What did the government do about Kent State protests?
Sent in the National Guard
What did the National Guard do in the Kent State protests?
Open fired on the protesters
Many Americans feared America was teetering on the edge of...
...A violent revolution
What was the name of the Peace Settlement of 1973?
Paris Peace Accords
Who took part in the Paris Peace Accords?
N. Vietnam
S. Vietnam
United states
What were the three facets of the Paris Peace Accords?
1. Ceasefire
2. Release of all prisoners
3. US would pull out
What happened after the Paris Peace Accords?
US pulled out and N. Vietmam took over S. Vietnam, they turned communist
What was the significance of Vietnam?
1. 60,000 American soldiers died
2. Created a lack of trust and respect for the government
3. Created a fear of repeating the disaster
Why was the Civil war fought?
TO maintain the union
What 3 amendments were passed following the Civil War?
13th, 14th and 15th
What did the 13th amendment do?
abolished slavery
What did the 14th amendment do?
1. Blacks now citizens of the US (Before: "special property")
2. All citizens will have equal protection under the law (equal rights)
What did the 15h amendment do?
Can't deny someone the right to vote because of their race
What 2 types of equality did we discuss?
De jure (equality before the law)
De facto (equality in practice)
What was the term used for laws Whites in the south passed to discriminate against blacks?
Jim Crow Laws
What were two Jim Crow Laws we studied?
1. Literacy Tests
2. Poll Tax
What law made "Separate but equal"?
Plessy V. Ferguson
What did "Separate but equal" say?
Segregation is legal, as long as there are equal accomodations
What were 5 factors that brought about a slow change in the way blacks were percieved?
1. Jackie Robinson
3. Blacks began to demand better treatment
4. Many more protest marches were held
5. Actions taken by the government
What team did Jackie Robinson play for?
Brooklyn Dodgers
Why did people think Robinson would fail as a base ball player?
"whites are superior"
What conclusion did Americans come to about Jackie Robinson?
If a black man can play baseball as well as a qhite man, maybe they are equal to whites ... therefore they should be treated equally.
What did people see that was shocking?
Duplicity - 2-faced
What type of duplicity were Americans seeing?
Whites called German's "racist"
White Americans were discriminating against blacks
Who led the revolution of demanding better treatment for blacks?
Rosa Parks
Martin Luther King, Jr.
King/Parks led a boycott of...
...the busline
What types of protests occured?
March on Washington
What 5 government actions were discussed?
1. Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka
2. 24th Amendment
3. Civil Rights act of 1964
4. Voting Rights Act of 1965
5. Civil Rights Act of 1968
What did Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka decide?
In public education, "separate but equal" is no longer allowable.
What were 5 differences between white and black schools?
1. Buildings
2. Teachers (college degrees)
3. Libraries
4. Heating
5. Gymnasiums
What did schools have to do after Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka?
What did the 24th Amendment do?
Outlawed poll taxes
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?
1. No racial discrimination in businesses open to the public
2. No racial discrimination in employment
WHat did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do?
Outlawed literacy tests
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do?
Mad it illegal to discriminate someone based on race in the buying, selling and renting of property.
Who ran in the election of 1960?
John F. Kennedy, Democratic
Richard Nixon, Republican
What were JFK's basic issues in the election?
1. Eisenhower/Nixon had allowed the SU to have a nuclear advantage over the US
2. Blamed E/N for allowing Cuba to turn communist
Who led the communist revolution in Cuba?
Fidel Castro
What were Nixon's basic issues in the election?
1. JFK was inexperienced
2. He would fight communism
Why did people believe JFK would lose the election?
His religion (Catholic)
What did people fear about JFK's religion?
That his loyalty would be ultimately to the Pope rather than to the US
What were the two main factors that swayed the election of 1960?
1. Debates
2. Eisenhower didn't endorse Nixon until about 2 weeks before the election
The debates of 1960 were the first time debates were...
Why did JFK look strong and confident?
He was tan
Why did the endorsement of Eisenhower matter?
People respected him
Who won the election of 1960?
What group planned the Bay of Pigs?
When was the Bay of Pigs originally planned?
During Eisenhower's term
Who gave the OK to go ahead with the Bay of Pigs?
WHo had the CIA been training for the Bay of Pigs?
Cuban exiles
How many exiles were trained?
Who did the exiles expect to get support from?
1. Fellow Cubans
2. US would provide air support
Who did the exiles get help from?
no one
What was the significance of the Bay of Pigs?
1. Huge embarrasment to JFK and the US
2. Made Castro absolutely hate the US
3. Castro developed closer relations to the Soviet Union
4. Led to the Cuban Missile Crisis
What separated East and West Berlin?
A wall
What was the Berlin wall a worldwide symbol of?
The concflict between the communist world and the free world
In which country did the US put missiles aimed that the SU?
What did people think about America's weapons in Turkey?
They were useless
How did The SU counter America's missiles in Turkey
put missiles in Cuba
What appeared in the photographs taken the first time of Cuba?
Soviet troops building some kind of missile installation
What did further photos show?
Some missile sites were operational
When JFK went on TV, what three things did he tell America?
1. The SU had missiles in Cuba that were ready for use
2. The US would set up a quarentine around Cuba
3. We are ready and prepared for every eventuality (war)
Who was the leader of the SU suring the CMC?
Nikita Khrushchev
Why didn't Kr. just pull missiles out?
He would look weak
What agreement did Khr. make originally?
They would pull the missiles out if the us would promise not to attack cuba again.
What did Khr. add to his agreement?
The US must pull its missiles out of Turkey
What did JFK respond to publicily?
We'll accept the SU's offer to withdraw from Cuba and we'll promise not to invade CUba
Who privately contacnted the SOviets?
Robert Kennedy
What was Robert Kennedy's position>
Attorney General for the US
What did R. Kennedy tell the SU?
The US would agree to pull the missiles out of turkey
What was the significance o the CMC?
1. Soviet Union backed down in the eyes of the world
2. Khrushchev was removed from pwoer
3. Climax of the cold war, we discovered we needed to get along
4. Detente
What is De'tente?
Lessening of tension
Who ran in the elections of 1972?
Richard Nixon, Rep
George McGovern, Dem
Why did the police arrest 5 people?
They were found breaking in to offices rented by the Democratic National Committee
Where did the Democratic Nation Committe have its offices?
Watergate Hotel
What was common in those breaking into Watergate?
Former members of CREEP
What is CREEP?
Committee to Re-Elect the President
What party was CREEP?
Republicans mostly
What did Nixon say about the watergate breaking?
"I had nothing to do with the break-in, nor did my staff."
Who won the election of 1972
Nixon, by a landslide
Who was the first to come forward?
James McCord
What happened after McCord came forward>
Many more did
WHo was the counsel to the president?
John Dean
What did John Dean tell the senate?
Attorney General John Mitchell had ordered the break-in
What were the trials of watergate people calleD?
Watergate Hearings
What were people beginning to believe about Nixon?
He was trying to prevent an investigation of watergate
WHo was the first special prosecuter appointed by Nixon?
Archibald Cox
What did Cox ask Nixon to do?
Turn in all of th the tapes
What excuse did Nixon give for not turning in tapes?
"executive privilege"
What happend when nixon wouldn't hand over tapes to cox?
Cox sued him, nixon fired cox
WHo was Nixon's second special prosecutor?
Leon Jaworski
Who ran the impeachment investication?
House Judiciary Committee
What's impeach?
To accuse of wrongdoing
WHy were Nixon's transcripts suspicious?
They were edited
They were transcripts, not originals
What was the name of the court hearing of Nixon?
United States v. Richard Nixon
What happend in US v. RN?
Nixon was ordered to turn the tapes over to the special prosecutor
What did the House Judiciary Committee reccomend?
Impeachment of Nixon
What was the "Smoking Gun"?
Nichon had ordered the FBI to stop the investigation of Watergate
How did Nixon's carreer end?
he resigned
What was the significance of Watergate?
Created a sense of mistrust in the governmetn
How many days do I have left of school?

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