Glossary of American History Part 1
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- What was the putting out system?
- ex: clothing
You take each step and pay someone to do in their own house. (cotton to spin, thread to weave, cloth to cut, ect..)
- What were the changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution?
- Wind, Water, Human, and Animal powered machines were replaced by Steam, Gas, Electric, and Nuclear powered machines
- What is History?
- The memory of things said and done
- What is Urbanization?
- The growth of cities
- Who invented the first steam powered machine, what was it, and what was it used for?
- James Watt
The water pump
Mostly for mining
- What were some changes in living conditions?
Spread of Disease
Price of land
- What did the factory system replace?
- The putting out system
- What was taking place during progressivism?
- The Industrial Revolution
- What is a factory?
- A building that contains both machines and workers
- What were the 8 changes in working conditions?
- Couldn't set own hours
They had to work in a factory
Hours: 16 hrs/day, 6 days/week, 96 hrs/week
Temperatures: average- 90 degrees +
No minimum wage
No vacation (until 1920's)
No unemployment compensation
No safety regulations
- What did the factory system help?
- Production and the textile industry, ect...
- The term "industrial revolution" was created by whom, what was his book called, and what year was the term created?
- Arnold Toynbee
The Industrial Revolution
- What was a muckraker?
- A journalist
- Who was the main muckraker?
- Lincoln Steffens
- What were some changes in transportation?
- The Steam Locomotive
The Steam Boat
- Why were the changes in transportation so great?
- You could haul more
It was quicker
It was cheaper
- Who invented the steam boat and what was it called?
- Robert Fulton
- What is progressivism?
- A belief that:
1) recognized that there are problems in America in the early 1900's
2) things could get better
3) action is necessary to make things better
- Who invented the steam locomotive?
- Richard Trevithick
- What magazine did Lincoln Steffens write for?
- Who wre mainly the Social Gospel Reformers?
- What were Settlement House's made for?
- To help immirgrants adjust to American Society
A school for adults to teach language and customs
- What was Lincoln Steffens book called?
- The Shame of the Cities
- What were the reasons people thought it was wrong for women to vote?
- sphere's of influence- women=the home, men=outside the home
women are "innocent" to politics
- Who started the Salvation Army, when and where was it started?
- William Booth
- What did Lincoln Steffens do and what did he say?
- Went from city to city studying politics.
He said that politics as a whole is corrupt.
- Who was in charge of the NAWSA?
- Anna Shaw
- Who was in charge of the Hull House?
- Jane Addams
- What were the reasons people thought is was right for women to vote?
Women could "clean up" politics
- Who was the author of the most popular book in the late 1800's early 1900's(besides the bible) and what was the book called?
- Charles Sheldon
What Would Jesus Do? In His Steps
- What did Sheldon's book inspire people to do?
- Think of something other than themselves
- What amendment gave women the right to vote and what year was it passed?
- 19th Amendment
- What was the organization to help women get the right to vote?
- The National Woman Sufferage Association
- What was the Women's Sufferage Movement suppose to do?
- Give women the right to vote
- Who created the thoery of communism?
- Karl Marx
- What is capitolism?
- The system of using money to make money
- What books did Karl Marx write?
- The Communist Manifesto
- Marx put everyone into two different groups. What were they and what did they represent?
- 1) Proletariat - working class
2) Borgeoisie - owners
- Marx argued that all history is what?
- A series of struggles between the proletariat and the borgeoisie.
- What did Marx say about the capitalism workers?
- They would be over worked and under paid.
- Marx said that capitalism is wrong for two reasons. What are they?
- 1) People that work the most get paid the least.
2) People that work the least get paid the most.
- What did Marx say would happen as time goes on?
- There will be more and more Proletariat, and less and less Borgeoisie.
- Why did he say that?
- 1) Bigger businesses will drive out smaller businesses out of business
2) Bigger businesses will buy out smaller businesses
- What did Marx say would eventually happen to the proetariat?
- There will be a growing sense of frusteration among them.
Eventually there will be a revolution.
- What will people try to gain control over according to Marx?
- 1) businesses
- Communism is a society without three things. What are they?
- 1) Individual ownership of property
2) Class distinctions
- What were Socialists?
- People who want business to be owned or controled by the government.
- What did socialists believe they needed to do?
- 1) Pass laws
2) Have a revolution
- What did th etemperance movement try to do?
- Ban alcohol
- What did they believe it would do?
- It would be a panacea for America
- What is a panacea?
- A cure-all.
- What amendment banned alcohol?
- The 18th Amendment in 1918
- What did people think the could get rid of by banning alcohol?
- What was the problem with the temperance movement?
- People didn't stop drinking (the first mofia was formed).
- What ammendment repealed the 18th?
- The 21st Ammendment in 1933
- What was the period called when the Temperance movement was in action?
- Prohibition - 1918-1933
- What did the political reformers do?
- 1) Secret Ballot
2) Recall Elections
3) Primary Elections
- Who were the candidates for the 1912 election and what were their ranks at the time?
- William Taft - current president
Teddy Roosevelt - former president
Woodrow Wilson - Governor of New Jersey
- What party did Roosevelt form after Taft came out on top of the primarys?
- The Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
- Why did Wilson win?
- The republicans split their vote
- What wasn't there until Wilson took office?
- Income Tax
- What was the law called that Wilson wanted passed and what was it supposed to do?
- Underwood Simmons Tariff
Lower taxes on imported goods
- What is a tariff?
- Tax on imported goods
- Why did Wilson want to lower the income tax?
- 1) So that competition would rise in the USA, and quality would go up as well
2) To help the working class
- What was the problem with the UST?
- Government wasn't making as much money
- What did wilson use to make more money for the government?
- Income Tax
- What Ammendment allowed Income Tax?
- The 16th Ammendment in 1913
- When did World War 1 break out?
- In 1914
- What happened on June 28, 1914?
- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assasinated.
- Who was Francis Ferdinand?
- The heir of the throne to Austria-Hungary
- Who was the emperor of Austria-Hungary in 1914?
- Francis Ferdinand's uncle, Francis Joseph
- Who wanted control of Bosnia?
- How did Austria-Hungary respond to the assasnation?
- 1) They consulted Germany about starting a war with Serbia
2) 1 month after, they declared war on Serbia
- How did Germany respond to Austria-Hungary?
- They told them they would help in any way they could. They gave them a "blank check".
- What did Serbia do after they found out about Austria-Hungary and Germany?
- They turned to Russia and asked them for help.
- What did Russia say and do?
- 1) They said yes
2) They started mobilizing troops.
- After Germany told Russia to "stay out of it", what did Russia do?
- Turned to their ally, France.
- What did France say and do?
- 1) Said yes
2) Started mobilizing
- When did Germany declare war on Russia? France?
- Russia - August 1, 1914
France - August 3, 1914
- What did Germany do to Belgium?
- 1) Asked them if they could move their troops through to France.
*when Belgium said no*
2) Attacked and defeated Belgium in a matter of a few hours.
- Why did Great Britian join the war?
- Germany didn't listen to them about staying out of Belgium.
- What was the plan called to overtake France and what was it?
- 1) The Schieffen Plan
2) Knock France out of the war immediately
3) Take on Russia
- What did the USA do right away and what did it mean?
- 1) President Wilson declared the US Neutrality Policy
- Who said (or at least was going to say) that America should persue isolationism and when was he supposed to say it?
- George Washington in his Farewell Address
- Why was is going to be difficult for the US to stay out of the war?
- 1) People chose sides
2) Respect for Great Britain
3) Economic ties that we had with the Allies
4) Germany used submarine warfare
- What boat did Germany sink and what kind of boat was it?
- The Lusitania
A passenger ship
- What were the three groups of people and what did they each say?
- 1) Pacifists - to stay out
2) Interventionists - US to go to war
3) People who believed in preparedness - prapare for war, but for now stay out
- Who were the candidates of the election of 1916?
- Republican - Charles Even Hughes (interventionalists)
Democrat - Woodrow Wilson (preparednessist)
- What was Wilson's slogan?
- "He kept us out of war!"
- How long was Wilson in office before he asked to declare war?
- 1 month
- When did Wilson ask to declare war?
- April 1917
- What things lead up to the declaration of the war?
- 1) Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted
2) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
3)Economic ties with the Allies
- What was the Zimmerman Telegram?
- A telegram from Germany to México that told them to attack the US if we join the war.
- What was the telegram called that got intercepted?
- The Zimmerman Telegram
- What did Germany say about submarine warfare?
- "Any ship that is going to any ally country (Great Britain) will be sunk."
- In 1917, Europe was divided by two trenches. Where were they?
- Western Europe
- What did the economic ties have to do with anything?
- The US sold millions of $$ worth of supplies to the allies, and if they lost, they would loose millions of dollars.
- When did congress declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary?
- April 6, 1917
- How did the government convince the US citizens that it was good to go to war?
- 1) Idealistic Goals
2) Set up Social Groups
3) Passed Laws
4) Propoganda (advertizement)
- What were the idealistic goals used to convince the people about the war?
- a) It was the war to end all wars
b) It would make the world safe for democracy
c) There would be peace without victory (spoils)
- What were the Social Groups?
- a) Boy spies of America
b) Girl spies of America
(boy and girls ages 10-16)
- What were the laws passed?
- a) Sedition Act
b) Espionage Act
- What was the Sedition act?
- Made it illegal to critize the government
- What was the Espionage Act?
- Made it illegal to MAIL any seditious material.
- How did the government find out about people mailing anything seditious?
- People were "hired" to go through the mail.
- Who did the government tell specifically to go through the mail?
- Postmaster General Albert Sydney
- Who was the leader of the commitee of Public Information?
- George Creel
- What was the cost of the war for the US?
- $32 billion
32 times the entire Federal Budget
- How did the government pay for the war?
- 1) They raised taxes.
2) They took loans out from the people.
- What were the loans called that the government used to pay for the war?
- War bonds
- Who was the leader that set up the War Industries Board?
- Bernard Baruch
- What was the organization called that made sure the soldiers had enough supplies?
- The War Industries Board
- Who did the WIB get to run the factories that would supply the supplies?
- Factory owners would volunteer
- What things were the factory owners told to do when they would volunteer?
- -what goods to make
-how many to make
-the price at which to sell it
- Why would factory owners volunteer? What was their motive?
- The would get paid sometimes up to 25% more
- What was the great migration?
- Tens of thousands of blacks moving from the South to the North
- Why were blacks moving from the South to the North?
- Push/Pull effect
- Why were the blacks feeling pushed from the South?
- -lack of jobs
- Why were the blacks feeling pulled to the North?
- -good jobs
- Why were women a factor in the war economy?
- -They entered the work force because most of the men were off to war.
- What was the Selective Service Act?
- The draft
- What was the boom time of the war?
- A good economy
- Germany was fighting a what?
- 2 front war
- Where were the two fronts?
- Western Europe - Stalemate outside of Paris
Eastern Europe - Russia vs. Germany
- What was going on with Russia in 1917?
- What happened in November os 1917?
- The Bolshevik Revolution
- Who were the Bolsheviks?
- Who was the Bolshevik leader?
- Vladimir Lenin
- What were the Bolsheviks 3 basic goals?
- When did Russia pull out of the war?
- early 1918
- What was the treaty with Germany called with Russia when they pulled out of the war?
- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- What was the "great race"?
- -Germany can now send all of it's troops to Eastern Europe
-The US is going to send it's troops to Eastern Europe
-It was a matter of who will get there first
- Who was the leader of Germany when the Archduke was assasinated?
- Kaiser Wilhelm II
- What was Germany's last offensive called?
- The Second Battle of the Marne
- When did the last battle take place?
- Summer 1918
- The allies were lead by a French Leader. What was his name?
- General Ferdinand Foch
- When was WWI ended?
- November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am
- Who were the Big Three?
- 1) USA - Woodrow Wilson
2) Great Britain - Prime Minister David Lloyd George
3) France - Prime Minister George Clemeneau
- What was Wilson's Peace Settlement?
- 14 points-
a) self-determination (each group of people should govern itself)
b) League of Nations
c) No secret treaties
- What did David Lloyd George want?
- What did George Clemenceau want?
- a) reparations
b) eliminate Germany's military
c) create bufferzone
- What was the bufferzone and what was it's name going to be?
- -A seperate country
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