Glossary of American History Civil War Reconstruction Ch.14
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- Who were the Radical Republicans?
- Those who opposed Lincoln's plan and wanted the South to pay for the damage it did during the Civil War. They especially ganged up against Andrew Johnson and tried to pass various bills against his and Lincoln's will.
- What was Lincoln's plan for reunion with the South?
- Lincoln decided that as long as 1/10 of Southerners in each state pledged an alliegance to the Union and agreed to abolish slavery, it would be enough for a state to be admitted back into the Union
- What was the Wade-Davis Plan?
- the Wade-Davis plan was devised by Radical Republicans in opposition to Lincoln's plan. It called for a list of all white men in a state. The state could not be recognized until a majority of people on the list took a new oath to support the Constitution and there would have to be a convention to make a new constitution for each state in the South. No one could vote or help make the constitution unless they took an "iron clad oath. Furthermore, the plan worked only to those who had not held a position in the Confederacy at all. Under this bill it would have taken years for the South to regain its full power. Despite it passing in Congress, Lincoln refused to sign the bill saying that there should be two paths for Southern states. His or the Radical republicans.
- Who assassinated President Lincoln?
- John Wilkes Booth
- What were "Black Codes"?
- A number of laws passed in the Southern states that were based on old slave codes. These laws curbed the rights of blacks in the South and kept them oppressed there.
- Who took Lincoln's place after his assassination?
- Andrew Johnson
- What was the Comittee of reconstruction?
- a Congress setup comittee made of both radical Republicans and democrats who tried to produce several bills
- What Was the Feedman's Bureau and the bill to extend its life?
- The Freedman's Bureau was a government set up agency that helped refugees both black and white get back on track and get things in the south back into working order. It gave out food, built hospitals, and built schools, especially for blacks. Moderate Republicans thought that Johnson would sign it but much to their dismay, Johnson vetoed the bill because it gave the Bureau the power to deal with discrimination cases
- What was the Civil Rights Bil?
- This bill was to protect the Blacks in the South and allowed the federal government to intervene in a state's affairs to protect all United States's citizens. Johnson vetoed this bill.
- What happened when Johnson kept vetoing bills?
- It pushed moderates into the Radical Republican party
- What is the fourteenth amendment?
- The Fourteenth Amendment is a bill that defines US Citizenship and forbade a state from depriving their citizens from rights or privileges. It reduced the representation of a state taht did not allow adult males to vote and it ruled that no state could choose to pay its Confederate debt. It also said that no one who held office without being pardoned by a 2/3 congressional vote could not hold office if they were once apart of the Cnfederacy.
- What was military reconstruction?
- A plan that the North used that divided the south into 5 military districts which were ruled by a military general.
- Who was Thaddeus Stevens?
- a radical republican who was often called a "humanitarian without Humanity." He was greatly opposed to slavery and was active in the abolishment movement and bitter towards the Southerners.
- Who was Charles Sumner?
- A senator from Massachussetts who was for black rights and bitter toward the South and opposition
- What was Johnson impeached for?
- Firing his secratary of war despite the Tenure of Office Act
- What was the Tenure of Office Act?
- an act that did not allow the president to dismiss any government officials without Congress's permission
- Was Johnson impeached from office?
- No, the vote was down by one from making him impeached though
- Who won the election of 1868?
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Who opposed Grant?
- Hortio Seymour
- Who were "scalawags"?
- white southerner constitutional governments
- what were "carpet-baggers"?
- Governments that had northerners who carried no more than what they could carry in their carpet bag
- What was the Ku KLux Klan?
- a secret army that developed in the South that flogged, maimed, and killed blacks who tried to vote or who tried to act as a white's equal.
- What was the Credit Mobilier scandal?
- The Union Pacific created the company Credit Mobilier of America and paid it money using federal funds and owners of the company earned a large profit from this. They paid congressmen so that they would not look into the situation too closely.
- What was the salary grab?
- when Congressmen tried to give themselves, the president and supreme court a 50% raise in salary. Public outcry against the act got the act repealed for congressmen but remained for Supreme Justices and the president
- What was the whiskey fraud?
- When members of the Dept. of treasury cut a deal with whisky dealers to not tax whisky.
- Who was W.W. Belknap?
- The Secratary of War who resigned before he was impeached in 1876 for accepting bribes from a Department agent charged with providing supplies to the Indians
- What were the Causes of the Panic of 1873
- - the rapid growth of railroads and factories put a strain on the country's resources
- insurance companies had to pay over $273 million dollars to settle the fires of CHicago and Boston in 1871 and 1872
- the Collapse of Jay Cooke's investment firm, which put too much of its money into the railroad
- How long did the panic of 1873 last?
- for five years
- Who were the candidates for the 1876 election?
- Democrat- Samuel J. Tilden
Republicans- Rutherford B. Hayes
- Who won the election of 1876?
- What was unusual about the election of 1876?
- South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana sent two sets of votes, one declaring republican majority, the other Democrat majority
- What did Congress do to resolve the issue of the Election of 1876?
- They cteated a comission of 15 members to determine which disputed ballots should be accepted and came out saying that Hayes was winner (8 were republicans, 7 were democrats)
- What was the Compromise of 1877
- An agreement that if the South accept the electoral commission's report that it would grant it four favors:
1) federal troops would leave the south and would mean the end of Radical Republican rule in the South
2) at least one southerner would gain a position in the Cabinent
3) Hayes would give conservative democrats control in part of the local patronage
4) He support generous spending for the internal improvements int the south
The south accepted and Hayes became president
- How did southerners handle black voting?
- not all tried to attack the blacks. Many tried to use them to their advantage and have them help vote for their political candidate, especially in the Democratic party
- What are "Jim Crow" laws?
- segregation laws that kept blacks from sharing public places with whites
- What Supreme court case approved of segregated facilities?
- Plessy v. Furguson which kept the races "separate but equal"
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