Glossary of American History 1: Early Colonizations to 1877

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The arrival of the first Native Americans in North America coincided with
the beginning of the last ice age.
Indians are descended from
Paleo-Indians spread over the North American continent
in small kinship groups
Among the Archaic Indians, men had primary responsibility for
Hunting, fishing, tool making, and war
The Anasazi culture of the Southwest declined because of
Native American peoples practiced
both war and diplomacy
Cahokia was
a populous mound city
The Pueblo Indians lived
in the Southwest
In the period before 1492, most Europeans were
peasant farmers
The nation that led in Atlantic exploration in the fifteenth century was
The Renaissance furthered
the rise of learning
The rise of the middle classes in Europe in the period before the Age of Discovery went hand in hand with
the expansion of the cities
The Spanish empire in America was NOT based on
the idealism of the conquistadores
In their explorations the conquistadores sought
What was responsible for the drastic decline of the Indian population after contact with the Europeans?
The Columbian exchange provided what for the Europeans?
The Treaty of Tordesillas
divided ownership of the Americas between the Portuguese and the Spanish
The Reformation in Europe
was led by the Protestants
The Puritans wished to reform the Church of England by
purifying the church of Roman Catholic rituals
Samuel de Champlain
established the French colony of Canada
Raleigh's purposes in founding the Roanoke colony did NOT include
extermination of the Indians
Joint stock companies in England aided the colonization effort by
raising funds
The prosperity of the Chesapeake colonies resulted from
the cultivation of tobacco
Plymouth was settled by the
In coming to America, the Pilgrims sought
religious freedom for themselves
The concept of a "city on a hill" referred to the Puritans' desire to
be a model of Christianity
Harvard College was founded to train
New England local government was based on
The first colony to practice some form of religious toleration was
Rhode Island
During the seventeenth century, the greatest extremes of inequality were found in
the West Indies
The most visible environmental effect of English land use in the American colonies was
After 1660, the English
established new colonies
Which of the following was NOT one of the middle colonies? New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, or Delaware
The Glorious Revolution in England resulted in the most violence in which American colony?
New York
The colony of South Carolina grew wealthy by cultivating
What was NOT one of the causes of the Salem witchcraft panic
belief in science
The most important administrative agency set up by William and Mary to run the colonies was
the Board of Trade
What group had the LEAST to do with the day-to-day administration of local government in the colonies?
The colonial courts
Colonial legislatures and royal governors contested
Control of revenue, introduction of legislation, choice of the speaker of the assembly, and land grants
The colony that had a black majority in the eighteenth century was
South Carolina
What was NOT one of the major causes of the increase in colonial population?
Intermarriage with the Indians
Women and men in the colonies
generally worked separate from one another
Colonial cities in the eighteenth century
increased in population
What group of colonists did not live in ethnic enclaves?
The English
Benjamin Franklin
believed in improvement of living conditions
In the Great Awakening,
some congregations split into two opposing camps
The French and Indian War
gained the British control of Canada
The Albany Plan of Union
was intended to enable the colonies to work together during the French and Indian War
The reason why the British defeated the French in the French and Indian War was that
the French could not resupply themselves, the British controlled the seas, the Indians decided on neutrality, and the colonist and the British cooperated.
George Grenville's plan to "reform" the colonies would have
forced the colonies to obey the Navigation Acts
Because of the Proclamation of 1763,
some Americans began to see a conspiracy in Britain against American liberty
In the stamp tax controversy, Patrick Henry
persuaded the Virginia legislature to adopt resolutions of protest
Samuel Adams was an important Whig leader because
he had written treaties on government that opposed tyranny
The committees of correspondence
allowed the Whigs in Massachusetts to communicate with leaders in other colonies
The so-called Coercive Acts of 1774
shut the port of Boston
In 1774, the protesting Americans blamed the social crisis on
corruption in England
The Loyalists represented approximately what percent of the population?
20 percent
Which of the following people would most likely be a revolutionary in 1776?
A royal governor, A Roman Catholic Canadian, A Quaker, A Huron Indian, A Massachusetts merchant
A Massachusetts merchant
During the war, Americans were victorious at all of the following battles except:
Trenton, Princeton, Saratoga, Long Island, Yorktown
Long Island
All of the following states either ended slavery or arranged for its gradual dissoultion between 1776 and 1804 except:
New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire
A shortage of trained soldiers was NOT a difficulty the British faced prosecuting the war. True or False
Revolutionary society was marked by
little improvement of women's condition
All the new state governments incorporated the basic principle of
In the Federal Constitution of 1787,
a system of "dual sovereignty" was erected
By the 1780's, the agriculture of the South was producing significant quantities of all but:
Corn, Wheat, Cotton, Hogs, Tobacco
President George Washington's leadership style is best described as
deference to Congress on domestic issues and strong leadership on foreign policy
The leading domestic policymaker in Washington's administration was
Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton's plan for improving the financial status of the new nation included all EXCEPT:
A national bank, excise taxes, funding the national debt, expansion to the west, assumption of state debts
expansion to the west
The first rebellion against the federal government occurred in
the Whiskey Rebellion
The person least likely to be a follower of the Republican Party in 1796 would have been
a New England minister
Thomas Jefferson believed that the most vigilant and virtuous citizens were
educated yeomen farmers
What constitutional principle was established in Marbury v. Madison (1803)?
The Supreme Court could review federal statues for their constitutionality
British "impressment" involved
seizure of sailors from American ships
Which region of the country strenuously opposed the Embargo Act of 1808?
New England
The United States declared war on Britain in 1812 for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. the desire to seize Canada
b. the desire to gain trade rights in the West Indies
c. Britain's violation of America's rights as a neutral nation.
the desire to help France win the war in Europe
One reason why New England became the country's first industrial region was because
it had a surplus of cheap labor
A major difference between the New England "putting out" or cottage textile industry and the corportate textile factories of Waltham and Lowell was NOT
the demand for high moral standards among the workers
Between 1840 and 1860, railroads in America
spread all over the eastern U.S.
Among the preconditions of the spread of elite culture in middle period America, one should NOT include
the invention of the camera
In the antebellum period, middle-class women joined
Charitable organizations, literary clubs, the temperance movement, and evangelical churches
According to the doctrine of "separate spheres,"
middle class women and men agreed to a "separate but equal doctrine."
What was a reason for the decline in birthrate among antebellum white women?
Abstinence and contraception
The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments called for
civil rights for women
Reformism in the middle period of American history
often revolved around the personality of a powerful or charismatic leader
Abolitionists were
opposed to slavery
One of the consequences of abolitionist agitation was
a fortress-like mentality in the South
The members of the Oneida Community
renounced private property
The section of the country most opposed to tariffs in the 1820's and 1830's was
the Southeast
The reason for Andrew Jackson's popularity was
his reputation as a general, his success as a planter, his personal appearance, his views on Indians
The theory that a state may override a fedal law is called
Removing officials from the other party and replacing them with those from your own party in the Jacksonian period was called
the spoils system
In the nullification crisis,
John C. Calhoun developed the doctrine of a compact theory of union
In the 1840's and 1850's, the most numerous immigrant group was
the Irish
Slavery in the antebellum South
allowed some slaves to advance to skilled positions in the economy
The law of slavery in the antebellum South had its origin in
the law of Barbados
Slavery as an economic system owned its continuing strength to
the cost of labor, the demand of cotton, the sale of slaves, the ability of slaves to work in skilled crafts
Most slaves responded to their condition with
the attempt to establish families and control their time and space
All women in the South
suffered legal and economic disabilities
The basic difference between the South and the North in the antebellum period was that
slavery flourished in the South and was barred by law in the North
The Mexican-American War
led to the occupation of California by American troops
As used in middle period political discussions, "manifest destiny" meant that
God had ordained that the United States should and would expand to cover the continent
Northern "free soilers" were united in
opposition to spread of slavery in the territories
Which of the following was part of the Compromise of 1850?
a. The admission of Utah as a state
b. The organization of the Kansas territory according to the doctrine of popular sovereignty
c. The end of slavery in the District of Columbia
A strong fugitive slave law
Which of the following was NOT true of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850?
a. It provided for recapture and rendition of suspected runaways without a jury trial
b. It laid open abettors of fugitive slaves to federal prosecution.
c. It ended fe
It ended federal protection of slavery
The date 1854 was significant in the history of American sectionalism
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was proposed
The term "popular sovereignty" referred to
allowing residents of a territory the right to choose or reject slavery
Personal liberty laws in the North in the 1850's
hampered enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
The U.S. diplomats at Ostend called for the annexation of
The new Republican Party of the 1850's drew support from all EXCEPT:
a. Northern Democrats
b. Know-Nothings
c. Norther Whigs
d. Free Soilers
e. Southern Democrats
Southern Democrats
The main issue on which all Republicans agreed was
free soil
The "self-inflicted wound" in the 1850's was
the Dred Scott decision
The political party that emerged the strongest from the collapse of the second party system was
the Republican Party
John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry
aroused Southern fire-eaters
The basic reason the Civil War occurred was because
leaders in the North and South were unable to deal with the issue of the expansion of slavery
After they won the election of 1860 and the Deep South had begun to secede from the Union, the Republicans rejected compromise because they
believed that moderate Southerners would eventually gain control of the situation
The Election of 1860 was a last straw for the South because
no one in the South could be sure of what Lincoln or the Republicans would do
The Upper South seceded when Lincoln
called for 75,000 militiamen to put down the rebellion
The Union and Confederate armies were largely composed of
The most effective way that the North and South found to finance the war was to
print money
The Union was more politically unified than the Confederacy because
the Republicans put aside their differences to support the war effort
The Civil War was the first modern war because
it relied upon new technologies
The "anaconda" was
the blockade of the Confederacy by the U.S. Navy
During much of the war, the eastern theater of battle was marked by
During the Civil War, slaves
ran to Union lines when they could
The Emancipation Proclamation
freed slaves in areas in rebellion
At the Battle of Gettysburg,
the Union army defeated the Confederate army
The most difficult objective for Union armed forces proved to be
the taking of Richmond
After 1863, Lincoln refused to exchange prisoners of war with the Confederacy unless it
included black troops
Northern morale dipped sharply after
Grant's Virginia Campaign in the spring of 1864
The Thirteenth Amendment
made slavery unconstitutional
The most difficult question the Union faced during Reconstruction was
the treatment of ex-slaves in the South
The "10 percent plan"
would have quickly restored the Union
Andrew Johnson
was a Southern Democrat
The black codes enacted by Southern states under presidential reconstruction
denied freedmen basic rights
The moderate and radical wings of the Republican Party reunited when President Johnson vetoed
the extension of the Freedman's Bureau
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
divided the South into military districts
Radical Republicans favored
legal equality for blacks
The Fifteenth Amendment
said that no one could be denied the right to vote on the basis of race or color
Biracial government during Reconstruction meant that
blacks were able for the first time to engage in self-government in the South
Most "carpetbaggers" came south to
engage in business
The "New South" referred to the idea that
businessmen would dominate Southern life
For the ex-slaves, freedom first meant
the ability to search for and reunite with family members
The most important spokesmen for the free black communities in the South were
The Ku Klux Klan was
a terrorist organization
In sharecropping,
sharecroppers borrowed seed and paid with a portion of their crops
President Grant proved himself
a poor judge of character
The Credit Mobilier was
a corrupt scheme in which government officials took payoffs for giving out construction contracts
"Redemption" referred to
white Southerners regaining control of state government
Rutherford B. Hayes's backers promised all BUT the following to the Democrats after the 1876 election:
a. reduction of federal military role in the South.
b. internal improvements for the South.
c. appointment of Southerners to federal pos
higher taxes in the North
The beginnings of "Jim Crow" in the South meant that
public facilities would be segregated by race

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