Glossary of American History, UNT, TAMS, Steve Wolfram, Test 1 (Chapters 1-5)
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- Book's explanation of migration to America?
- During the Ice Age, so much water was made into ice that Beringia was formed and the human tribes followed game to America c. 13,000-10,000 years ago.
- Teacher's proposed explanation of migration to America?
- Catastrophism - Volcanoes
- How were the first Native American tribes distinguished?
- What kind of society did the first Native American tribes have?
- Class society - divided by labor.
- When did the Cahokia culture exist?
- What are the Cahokia famous for and what does this relfect?
- Building mounds - this reflected a strong government, many job specialties, a stable economy, and strong religious values.
- What a misconception about Plains Indians?
- They had horses (they really didn't)
- What was the population in the U.S. c.1100-1500?
- 3-5 million Native Americans - a very large population
- Why were most Native Americans wiped out?
- Disease brought over by Europeans
- When did the Aztec Empire exist?
- What cultural treasure did the Aztecs have?
- 5 codices - libraries with tons of cultural goodies
- What do the codices reveal about the Aztecs?
- Pre-Columbian writing and a law system.
- What were some aspects of the Aztec law system?
- Consisted of lawyers, a judge, and a strict no torture policy.
- When did the Inca empire expand its rule and when did it end?
- Who was the last Inca ruler of Peru and who was his brother?
- Manco Inca succeeded his brother Tupac. They were only puppet emperors that the Spanish used to take advantage of the Incas.
- What were the three goals of the Spanish explorers?
- Spread the word of god, increase trade, and plunder and glory.
- What happened in 1492 in Spain?
- -Castil and Aragon were united. (Ferdinand and Isabella married)
-The Moores (Arabs) were thrown out of Spain as well as the Jews
-Expeditions were sent to find China and India and cut out the Muslim middlemen
-Columbus sailed the ocean blue
- What is some of Cortez's background?
- -minor nobility
-took part in the reconquista
-was a gambler
- When did Cortez's expedition take place?
- What were the events of Cortez's expedition?
- -went to governor of Cuba for permission to go west
-landed outside of Vera Cruz
-the ships/equipment were ragged and he had only 250 men
-he sank his own ships to motivate the men to move on
-he somehow overcame the language barrier with his Indian allies
-taken to the Aztec's emperor Montezuma
-took Montezuma as prisoner to prevent an Aztec uprise
-the next expeditions from Spain had a large contingent of priests
- When was Fransisco Pizarro's expedition and what did he do?
- -he landed in 1531
-he was taken up the Andes to the Inca empire
-the court and emperor Athualpa were confused about Catholicism and were imprisoned
-the Spanish pursued the emperors to the death
- What are important concepts about the technology of the sea during the era of exploration?
- -The ships were very small and leaky.
-The Atlantic Ocean became a highway.
- What happened in Europe in 1519?
- -Martin Luther nailed the 59 theses on a church, the Protestant Church was started and began a revolution against Catholics
-Pirates stole from Spaniards and were knighted in England
-The rest of Europe tried to go to the New World for gold in areas untouched by the Spaniards
- What happened in Europe c. 1550-1600?
- -Dutch Protestants used propaganda of Native American conversion against Spanish Catholics
-Most Native Americans were dead from disease (smallpox)
-The Spanish king claimed all of the New World
-The Writs of the Encomienda (a well established system to distribute land) were issued by the Viceroy of Spain in Cuba.
- Who were some famous French explorers and what did they do?
- Joliet - explored the upper Mississippi River c.1673
Champlain - Founded Quebec;'Father of France';discovered Lake Champlain/Huron c. 1608
La Salle - First to fully explore the Mississippi river c.1682
Montcalm - last of the French governors
- What were the French explorers looking for?
- -Trade Increase - didn't want to go through the Caribbean; moved North to Canada to find a path to China (that didn't work)
-The King of France dictated that explorers treat Native American chiefs like chiefs and any agreements/contracts must be honored
-couldn't plunder, so traded with the Native Americans
- What is Pays d'en Haut?
- -"the middle/upper ground"
-French reference to the region around the Great Lakes where there were alliances/trade with the Native Americans until c.1760
- What was a hot commodity for the French that they traded pots and pans for?
- Fur - was easily exportable, reflected the fashion in Europe at the time.
- What were the French and Native Americans willing to do so that there would be less confrontation?
- They both were willing to change their customs and laws eg. judicial methods.
French - eye for an eye
Indians - cover it up
- What was a coureur des bois?
-"messenger of the forest"
-French traders who formed close relationships with Native Americans of the Great Lakes region
- What was a Sachem?
- Any Native American leader of a coalition of major tribes
- What was the Joint Stock Company?
-The forerunner of the modern corporation; investors bought stocks in a given corporation with the expectation of a high return eg. East India Company, Jamestown Co. and Plymouth Co.
- What was a Charter Colony?
- -A GROUP of people (typically investors) were granted a document from the king outlining their territories and basic rules for the colony. Most of the colonies originated as charter colonies
-Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay colonies
- What was a Proprietary Colony?
- -An INDIVIDUAL is granted a document from the crown. Typically the individual exerted significant influence in the governance of the colony.
-Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey
- What was a Crown (or Royal) Colony?
- The King-in-Parliament recieves control of the colony and appoints Governors, establishes the basic rules and territory of the colony.
-By 1720 all colonies expect Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware are Crown colonies
- When was the Jamestown Settlement settled?
- May 6, 1607
- What was the Indian tribe/name of the chief that interacted with Jamestown?
- What story probably wasn't true about John Smith?
- His two friends were killed in a scuffle with Indians and he was saved by Pocahontas from being decapitated.
- What was the state of the Jamestown colony in 1608/09?
- -Supplies were running out.
-Disease is rampant.
-John Smith/remaining survivors about to leave for England, but new colonists arrive and encourage them to keep going.
-Smith gets in a burn accident and on his way to England writes info that the gov't uses to encourage more colonists to go to the New World.
- What was the Headright System and when did it occur?
-In return for going to the New World, settlers received land instead of gold.
-This appealed to the lower orders of society.
- When did John Rolfe introduce the regular cultivation of tobacco to England?
- When did John Rolfe marry Pocahontas?
- What happened in 1619 to Jamestown that was so pivotal?
- -The harsh rule of law ceased.
-First GA of Virginia.
-Summer-90 women arrive in the colony to be sold at an auction by the Jamestown Co.
-The first 19 or 20 slaves arrived via Dutch traders.
- When was the first GA of Virginia and what was decided there?
- -July 30, 1619
-Had to own land/revenue to join assembly.
-laws were passed to favor the rich
- What were the advantages of the 90 women coming to Jamestown?
- 1. Men got women - lightened the workload, social gain.
2. Women got men - inherited land when men died, had absolutely nothing in England.
3. Jamestown company gets land and tobacco back from the auction.
- Who was Opechancanough?
- -Powhatan's brother
-became chief after Powhatan's death
-hates English settlers
-staged two successful attacks on Jamestown in 1622 and 1644.
- What is the five point model of an Indian attack?
- 1. Small incident.
2. Native success.
3. English reaction.
4. Natives annihilated.
5. English expansion.
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