Glossary of American History, UNT, TAMS, Steve Wolfram, Test 1 (Chapters 1-5)

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Book's explanation of migration to America?
During the Ice Age, so much water was made into ice that Beringia was formed and the human tribes followed game to America c. 13,000-10,000 years ago.
Teacher's proposed explanation of migration to America?
Catastrophism - Volcanoes
How were the first Native American tribes distinguished?
What kind of society did the first Native American tribes have?
Class society - divided by labor.
When did the Cahokia culture exist?
What are the Cahokia famous for and what does this relfect?
Building mounds - this reflected a strong government, many job specialties, a stable economy, and strong religious values.
What a misconception about Plains Indians?
They had horses (they really didn't)
What was the population in the U.S. c.1100-1500?
3-5 million Native Americans - a very large population
Why were most Native Americans wiped out?
Disease brought over by Europeans
When did the Aztec Empire exist?
What cultural treasure did the Aztecs have?
5 codices - libraries with tons of cultural goodies
What do the codices reveal about the Aztecs?
Pre-Columbian writing and a law system.
What were some aspects of the Aztec law system?
Consisted of lawyers, a judge, and a strict no torture policy.
When did the Inca empire expand its rule and when did it end?
Who was the last Inca ruler of Peru and who was his brother?
Manco Inca succeeded his brother Tupac. They were only puppet emperors that the Spanish used to take advantage of the Incas.
What were the three goals of the Spanish explorers?
Spread the word of god, increase trade, and plunder and glory.
What happened in 1492 in Spain?
-Castil and Aragon were united. (Ferdinand and Isabella married)
-The Moores (Arabs) were thrown out of Spain as well as the Jews
-Expeditions were sent to find China and India and cut out the Muslim middlemen
-Columbus sailed the ocean blue
What is some of Cortez's background?
-minor nobility
-took part in the reconquista
-was a gambler
When did Cortez's expedition take place?
What were the events of Cortez's expedition?
-went to governor of Cuba for permission to go west
-landed outside of Vera Cruz
-the ships/equipment were ragged and he had only 250 men
-he sank his own ships to motivate the men to move on
-he somehow overcame the language barrier with his Indian allies
-taken to the Aztec's emperor Montezuma
-took Montezuma as prisoner to prevent an Aztec uprise
-the next expeditions from Spain had a large contingent of priests
When was Fransisco Pizarro's expedition and what did he do?
-he landed in 1531
-he was taken up the Andes to the Inca empire
-the court and emperor Athualpa were confused about Catholicism and were imprisoned
-the Spanish pursued the emperors to the death
What are important concepts about the technology of the sea during the era of exploration?
-The ships were very small and leaky.
-The Atlantic Ocean became a highway.
What happened in Europe in 1519?
-Martin Luther nailed the 59 theses on a church, the Protestant Church was started and began a revolution against Catholics
-Pirates stole from Spaniards and were knighted in England
-The rest of Europe tried to go to the New World for gold in areas untouched by the Spaniards
What happened in Europe c. 1550-1600?
-Dutch Protestants used propaganda of Native American conversion against Spanish Catholics
-Most Native Americans were dead from disease (smallpox)
-The Spanish king claimed all of the New World
-The Writs of the Encomienda (a well established system to distribute land) were issued by the Viceroy of Spain in Cuba.
Who were some famous French explorers and what did they do?
Joliet - explored the upper Mississippi River c.1673
Champlain - Founded Quebec;'Father of France';discovered Lake Champlain/Huron c. 1608
La Salle - First to fully explore the Mississippi river c.1682
Montcalm - last of the French governors
What were the French explorers looking for?
-Trade Increase - didn't want to go through the Caribbean; moved North to Canada to find a path to China (that didn't work)
-The King of France dictated that explorers treat Native American chiefs like chiefs and any agreements/contracts must be honored
-couldn't plunder, so traded with the Native Americans
What is Pays d'en Haut?
-"the middle/upper ground"
-French reference to the region around the Great Lakes where there were alliances/trade with the Native Americans until c.1760
What was a hot commodity for the French that they traded pots and pans for?
Fur - was easily exportable, reflected the fashion in Europe at the time.
What were the French and Native Americans willing to do so that there would be less confrontation?
They both were willing to change their customs and laws eg. judicial methods.
French - eye for an eye
Indians - cover it up
What was a coureur des bois?
-"messenger of the forest"
-French traders who formed close relationships with Native Americans of the Great Lakes region
What was a Sachem?
Any Native American leader of a coalition of major tribes
What was the Joint Stock Company?
-The forerunner of the modern corporation; investors bought stocks in a given corporation with the expectation of a high return eg. East India Company, Jamestown Co. and Plymouth Co.
What was a Charter Colony?
-A GROUP of people (typically investors) were granted a document from the king outlining their territories and basic rules for the colony. Most of the colonies originated as charter colonies
-Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay colonies
What was a Proprietary Colony?
-An INDIVIDUAL is granted a document from the crown. Typically the individual exerted significant influence in the governance of the colony.
-Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey
What was a Crown (or Royal) Colony?
The King-in-Parliament recieves control of the colony and appoints Governors, establishes the basic rules and territory of the colony.
-By 1720 all colonies expect Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware are Crown colonies
When was the Jamestown Settlement settled?
May 6, 1607
What was the Indian tribe/name of the chief that interacted with Jamestown?
What story probably wasn't true about John Smith?
His two friends were killed in a scuffle with Indians and he was saved by Pocahontas from being decapitated.
What was the state of the Jamestown colony in 1608/09?
-Supplies were running out.
-Disease is rampant.
-Mosquito problem
-John Smith/remaining survivors about to leave for England, but new colonists arrive and encourage them to keep going.
-Smith gets in a burn accident and on his way to England writes info that the gov't uses to encourage more colonists to go to the New World.
What was the Headright System and when did it occur?
-In return for going to the New World, settlers received land instead of gold.
-This appealed to the lower orders of society.
When did John Rolfe introduce the regular cultivation of tobacco to England?
When did John Rolfe marry Pocahontas?
What happened in 1619 to Jamestown that was so pivotal?
-The harsh rule of law ceased.
-First GA of Virginia.
-Summer-90 women arrive in the colony to be sold at an auction by the Jamestown Co.
-The first 19 or 20 slaves arrived via Dutch traders.
When was the first GA of Virginia and what was decided there?
-July 30, 1619
-Had to own land/revenue to join assembly.
-laws were passed to favor the rich
What were the advantages of the 90 women coming to Jamestown?
1. Men got women - lightened the workload, social gain.
2. Women got men - inherited land when men died, had absolutely nothing in England.
3. Jamestown company gets land and tobacco back from the auction.
Who was Opechancanough?
-Powhatan's brother
-became chief after Powhatan's death
-hates English settlers
-staged two successful attacks on Jamestown in 1622 and 1644.
What is the five point model of an Indian attack?
1. Small incident.
2. Native success.
3. English reaction.
4. Natives annihilated.
5. English expansion.

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