Glossary of American Government Unit 1, chapture 3 (TCN)
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- block grants
- Grants that provide the states with federal money to be used in general policy areas (such as education or policing) and give the states broad discretion as to how the funds will be used.
- categorical grants-in-aid
- Grants given to the states by the national government in order to implement specific federal policies.
- concurrent powers
- Powers held jointly by the national government and the state governments.
- cooperative federalism
- A model of federalism that suggests that the national and state governments have overlapping spheres of authority in which they can work cooperatively to solve policy problems.
- dual federalism
- The now-defunct nineteenth-century theory that viewed the federal and state governments as having separate and distinct spheres of authority.
- enumerated powers
- the powers specifically given to the national government by the Constitution.
- federal mandate
- Law passed by Congress requiring states to implement national regulations.
- implied powers
- Those powers not specifically given to the national government by the Constitution but inferred from its clauses.
- intergovernmental relations
- The process by which the national government shares revenues with the states, usually on the condition that the states meet certain federal guidelines.
- necessary and proper clause
- The clause in Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution that authorizes Congress to pass any laws that are necessary and proper to carrying out the other powers expressly delegated to it by the Constitution; also known as the Elastic Clause.
- reserved powers
- Those powers retained by the states since they are not specifically given to the national government by the Constitution.
- Supremacy Clause
- The clause found in Article 6 of the Constitution that states that the Constitution and the laws and treaties made by the national government are the supreme law of the land.
- unitary system of government
- A system of governance in which all authority is centralized in the national government.
- Explain the differences between a confederal, a federal, and a unitary system of government.
- In a confederal system of government, sovereign states agree to delegate authority over certain issues to a central government. Power thereby flows upward from the states to the central government. In a unitary system government, authority is centralized in the national government. Thus, power flows downward from the national government to any subnational governmental units. In a federal system of government, power is divided or shared between the national government and the states or subnational governmental units.
- Explain the difference between enumerated powers, implied powers, concurrent powers, and reserved powers.
- Enumerated powers are those powers specifically given to the national government by the Constitution. Implied powers are those powers not expressly given to the national government by the Constitution but inferred from its clauses. Reserved powers are those powers retained by the states under the Tenth Amendment, while concurrent powers are those shared by the national government and the states.
- Compare and contrast the Necessary and Proper Clause and the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution.
- The Necessary and Proper clause, found in Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution, allows congress to take any measures necessary to exercise its enumerated powers. The Supremacy Clause, found in Article 6, of the Constitution, states that the Constitution and the laws and treaties made by the national government are the "supreme law of the land." The necessary and proper clause underlies what have become known as the implied powers, while both the necessary and proper clause and the supremacy clause have been used to broaden the authority of the national government beyond those powers specifically listed in the Constitution.
- What is the difference between dual federalism and cooperative federalism?
- Dual federalism is the now-outdated model of ffederalism that suggests that the national government and the states have separate, distinct spheres of authority. Cooperative federalism is the model that suggests that the national government and the states have overlapping spheres of authority and can cooperate to solve policy problems.
- What is the difference between categorical grants-in-aid and block grants? Which type of grant is preferred by proponents of states' rights?
- Categorical grants-in-aid are federal grants given to states for specific policy programs, typically with federal conditions attached. Block grants are federal grants given to states for programs in general policy areas with few strings attached. Proponents of states' rights prefer block grants because they allow states more discretion in the use of federal funds.
- What is the difference between categorical-grants-in-aid and federal mandates?
- States do not have to accept the conditions attached to categorical grants-in-aid. Instead, they may simply decide not to take the funds for the specific policy program called for by a categorical grant-in-aid; thus, they will not be obligated to fulfill the federal conditions attached to the receipt of these funds. In contrast, federal mandates require states to implement national regulations in particular policy areas. A state is obligated to finance the measures called for by a federal mandate even if this mandate is not fully funded by the national government.
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