Glossary of American Government - Policy and Politics Ch.11
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- Legislative Oversight
- The porcess through which Congress evaluates the implementation of public policy by executive branch agencies.
- General Accounting Office (GAO)
- An independent agency that audits national government expenditures and programs for Congress.
- Cabinet Departments
- The major administrative units of the federal government that have responsibility for the conduct of a wide range of government operations.
-Including: State, Defense, Treasury, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Housing and Urban Development(HUD), Transportation, Energy, Health and Human Services, Education, Veteran's Affairs, and Homeland Security
- President's Cabinet
- An advisory group created by the president that includes the department heads and other officials chosen by the president, such as the nation's ambassador to the United Nations.
- Inner Cabinet
- The Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attorney General.
- Independent Executive Agencies
- Executive branch agencies that are not part of any of the cabinet-level departments.
- Peace Corps
- An agency that administers an American foreign aid program under which volunteers travel to developing nations to teach skills and help improve living standards.
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
- The federal agency in charge of the space program.
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- The federal agency that gathers and evaluates foreign intelligence information in the interest of the national security.
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- The federal agency responsible for enforcing the nation's environmental laws.
- Social Security Administration (SSA)
- A federal agency that operates the Social Security system.
- Small Business Administration (SBA)
- A federal agency established to make loans to small businesses and assist them in obtaining government contracts.
- Federal Election Commission (FEC)
- The agency that enforces federal campaign finance laws.
- Postal Service
- A government cooperation responsible for mail service.
- National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)
- A federal agency that operates inter-city passenger railway traffic.
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
- A federal agency established to insure depositor's accounts in banks and savings and loans institutions.
- Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
- A federal agency established to promote the development of the Tennessee River and its tributaries.
- National Science Foundation (NSF)
- A federal agency established to encourage scientific advances and improvements in science education.
- National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)
- A federal agency created to nurture cultural expression and promote appreciation of the arts.
- Independent Regulatory Commission
- An agency outside the major executive departments that is charged with the regulation of important aspects of the economy.
- Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
- A federal agency that regulates business competition, including enforcement of laws against monopolies and the protection of consumers from deceptive trade practices.
- Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
- A federal agency that regulates interstate and international radio, television, telephone, telegraph, and stellite communications, as well as licensing radio and television stations.
- Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
- A federal agency that regulates the sale of stocks and bonds as well as investment and holding companies.
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
- An agency that investigates and rules on charges of employment discrimination.
- Statutory Law
- Law that is written by the legislature.
- Spoils System
- The method of hiring government employees from among the friends, relatives, and supporters of elected officeholders.
- Hatch Act
- A measure designed to restrict the political activities of federal employees to voting and the private expression of views.
- Veterans' Preference
- The system that awarded extra points on civil service exams to armed forces veterans.
- Workers who report wrongdoing or mismanagement.
- Regulatory Negotiation
- A structured process by which representatives of the interests that would be substantially affected by a rule, including representatives of the regualtory agency, negotiate agreement on the terms of the rule.
- Constituency Service
- The actions of members of Congress and their staffs attending to the individual, particular needs of constituents.
- Fire-Alarm Oversight
- An indirect system of congressional surveillance of bureaucratic administration characterized by rules, procedures, and informal practices that enable individual citizens and organized interest groups to examine administrative decisions, charge agencies with violating administrative goals, and seek remedies from agencies, courts, and the Congress itself.
- Captured Agencies
- Agencies that work to benefit the economic interests they regulate rather than serving the public interest.
- Iron Triangle
- A cozy, three-sided relationship among government agencies, interest groups, and key members of Congress in which all parties benefit.
- Issue Network
- A group of political actors that is actively involved with policy making in a particular issue area.
- Surgeon General
- An official in the Public Health Service who advises the president on health matters.
- Joint Chiefs of Staff
- A military advisory body that is composed of the chiefs of staff of the U.S. Army and Air Force, the Chief of Naval Operations, and sometimes the Commandant of the Marine Corps.
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