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Glossary of American Government - Policy and Politics Ch.10

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Cold War
The period of international tension between the United Statesand the Soviet Unionlasting from thelate 1940's through the late 1980's.
Lame Duck
An officialwhose influence is deminished because the official either cannot or will not seek reelection.
Impeachment
A formal accusation against an executive or judicial office holder.
Articles of Impeachcment
A document listing the impeachable offenses that the House beleives the president committed.
Reconstruction
The process whereby the states that had seceded during the Civil War were reorganized and reestablished in the Union.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(H)
An international accord among the United States, Mexico, and Canada to lower trade barriers among the three nations.
(H)
Cheif of State
(H)
The tittle of the official head of government.
(H)
Executive Agreement
(H)
An International understanding between the president and foriegn nations that does not require Senate ratification.
(H)
Commander in Chief
(H)
The tittle of the official commander of the armed forces.
(H)
Civilian Supremacy of the Armed Forces
(H)
The Concept that the armed forces should be under the direct control of cicvilian authorities. This doctrineis based on the beleif that military decisions should be weighed in light of political considerations and in most cases, reflects the concept that the representative democracy depends on keeping the military out of politics.
(H)
Authoritarianism
(H)
An undemocratic government with power concentrated in the hands of one person or a small group.
(H)
War Powers Act
(H)
A law limiting the president's ability to commit American armed forces to combat abroad without consultation with Congress and congressional approval.
(H)
Pardon
(H)
An executive action that frees an accused or convicted person from all penalties for an offense.
(H)
Reprieve
(H)
An executive action that delays punishment for a crime.
(H)
Chief Executive
(H)
The tittle of the head of the executive branch of government.
(H)
Executive Order
(H)
A directive issued by the president to an administrative agency or executive department, to help manage the federal bureaucracy.
(H)
Two Presidencies Thesis
The concept that the president enjoys more influence over foreign policy than domestic policy.
Louisiana Purchase
The acquisition from France of a vast expanse of land streching from New Orleans north to the Dakotas.
New Deal
A legislative package of reform measures proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt(FDR), to rebound the Great Depression.
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
An international agreement, provided by the Clinton administration, to prohibit any nuclear weapons test explosion or any other nuclear explosion in the world. Rejected by the Senate.
Divided Government
The phenomenon of one political party controlling the legislative branch of government while the other holds the executive branch.
The Executive office of the President
The group of White House offices and agencies that develop and implement the policies and programs of the president.

Major agencies include:
-National Security Council(NSC)
-Office of Management and Budget(OMB)
-Council of Economic Advisors(CEA)
-Council on Environmental Quality
-Office of Science and Technology Policy
-Office of the United States Trade Representative
-Domestic Policy Council
National Security Council (NSC)
(H)
An agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on matters involving national security.
(H)
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
(H)
An agency in the Executive Office of the President that assists the president in preparing the budget.
(H)
Great Society
The legislative program of President Lyndon Johnson(LBJ) that served to raise the standard of living in america by providing more governmental jobs.
Honeymoon Effect
The tendency of a president to enjoy a high level of public support during the early months of an administration.
Rally Effect
The tendency of the general public to express support for the incumbment president during a time of international threat.

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