Glossary of American Expansion Slavery Debate
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- Explain two geographical effects from the Treaty of Paris. In other words, the United States gained (1.) and (2.).
- Two geographical effects were that the treaty enlarged American Territory west of the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. It also established state borders, Canada and Mexico.
- Explain the purpose of the Land Ordinance. (one sentence)
- The purpose of the Land Ordinance was to establish a system of sale for the country's western land
- Outline three provisions of the Land Ordinance
- Three provisions of the Land Ordicance were to divide the land into townships going 6 miles each way. Each township was then to be split into 640 acres. The law also required one section of each township be reserved to support a public school.
- Explain the purpose of the Northwest Ordinance. (one sentence)
- The purpose of the Northwest Ordinance was to create a government for the region north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania (Northwest Territory).
- Explain what happens when a territory reaches 5, 000 free men.
- elect a legislature and send a nonvoting delegate to congress
- Explain what happens when a territory reaches 60, 000 free inhabitants.
- Once a territory reaches 60,000 free inhabitants it becomes eligible for statehood and can draft a state constitution.
- 7. What type of government must be established?
- a republican government
- Define republican form of government
- A republican form of government was a government in which people hold the power and give elected representatives the authority to make and carry out laws.
- How was slavery handled in the Northwest Ordinance?
- No slavery or indentured slavery except for a punishment
- Which branch of government was responsible for approving a future state’s constitution and admittance into the Union?
- Legeslative Branch
- 10. List the states created from the Northwest Ordinance.
- Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michagin, Wisconson
- Explain why a debate arose over this situation. Who would benefit from slaves being counted in a state’s population?
- If slaves were counted as people then the south would have the advantage in the House of Representatives
- Explain the solution from Charles Pinckney.
- Pinckney wanted to count all free men as 1 person and all slaves as 3/5 of a person
- Explain why Napoleon offered to sell the entire region to the United States from the Louisiana Purchase.
- Napolean gave up his dream of owning the western United States
- Who was the President of the United States at this time? Does the Executive Branch have the constitutional authority to buy land? Who does
- Thomas Jefferson was the president at that time. The executive Branch does not have the constitutional authority to buy land, the congress does.
- How much money was spent? How much per acre? (Louisiana Purchase)
- 15 million dollars or 4 cents per acre was spent
- How many states were created from the Louisiana Purchase?
- 4 states
- What was the geographical effect of this purchase- in other words, what happened to the United States in relation to geography?
- It expanded the United States westward.
- Explain the economic effect for the United States- how did this acquisition help the United States financially
- This helped the United States financially because it allowed them to make money on the states being established and not paying a lot for the land.
- Explain the geographical effect of the Adams-Onis Treaty.
- The geographical effect of the Adams-Onis treaty was that Spain had to surrender the rest of Florida.
- What did the United States receive from Spain? How much money?
- The United States recieved Florida and 5 million dollars
- Define the Monroe Doctrine. Who was President of the United States?
- The Monroe Doctrine said that citizens of America are not liable to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European Powers.
- After which war was the Monroe Doctrine signed?
- War of 1812
- If you were a northerner debating the Missouri case, then what pervious document dealt with the issue of slavery in the northern states? Which branch of government had the authority to deal with the issue of slavery?
- Northwest Ordinance outlawed slavery in the North. Legislative Branch had the authority to deal with slavery.
- If you were a southerner debating the Missouri case, then which amendment from the first ten deals with the issue of slavery?
- The 5th amendment which says you cant be deprived of property without due process and compensation
- Explain the compromise created by Henry Clay.
- Missouri Compromise - admited Maine as a free state, Missouri as a slave state and anything above 36º 30' north latitude as a free state
- Define Manifest Destiny.
- Destiny was the 19th century doctrine according to which the United States was believed to have the G-d-given right to expand into and posses the whole of the North American continent. Manifest Destiny was a phrase used to describe some Americans’ feelings that the entire North American continent should belong to the United States.
- Define Annex
- Annex is defined as to take over a territory and incorporate it into another political entity, for example, a country or a state.
- Define Bear Flag Revolt. What territory/eventual state did the United States acquire?
- A revolt against Mexico by California Settlers who declared the Republic of Califronia during the Mexican War. The US later claimed california.
- Purpose of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
- To end the Mexican War and give the United States the Mexican Secession
- How much money did the United States give to Mexico?
- 15 million dollars
- Define Mexican Secession, what states did the United States eventually gain?
- The Mexican Cession was the territory that Mexico ceded to the United States after the Mexican War. The United States acquired California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming
- Define the Gadsden Purchase
- The Gadsden Purchase wan an agreement that added a strip of Mexican land to southern New Mexico and Arizona for $10 million.
- How much money did the United States pay for this land (30,000 sq miles)
- 10 million dollars
- List the States made from the Gadseon Purchas
- New Mexico, ARizona
- After the United States acquired all of this land, what do you think was the debate in Congress between the northern states and southern states?
- After the United States acquired all of this land, the debate in Congress between the northern and southern states dealt with slavery in the west.
- Define Popular Soverneigty
- Popular sovereignty was the principle that would let voters in new territories make their own decisions about slavery
- Explain the purpose of the Compromise of 1850
- The Compromise of f1850 settled the slavery debate over the land acquired from the Mexican war.
- Who was responsible for it?
- Henry Clay
- List four separate deals of the compromise
- California entered as a free state. The rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into two new territories where the residents were to determine the issue of slavery. No slave trade in D.C. Stronger Fugutive Slave act
- Who created the Kansas-Nebraska Act? What was the purpose, what did it establish?
- The Kansas-Nebraska act was created by Stephen A. Douglas. The act created popular sovereignty allowing residents of territories the decision on whether or not slavery should be legal in the territory beginning with Kansas and Nebraska.
- There were 3,000 residents in Kansas but 6,300 votes were counted when deciding whethere or not slavery, why?
- Missourians crossed into Kansas to vote
- What did free-soil Kansans do?
- They set up there own government
- How was the Republican Party formed?
- The Republican Party formed when the Whig party fell apart. Whig’s and some Democrats joined the Republican Party. The Republicans most important issue was keeping slavery out of the west. Controversy over slavery in the territories produced major shifts in the nation’s political party. Nominated 1st president in 1856. Four years later in 1860 Lincoln became 1st Republican President.
- Who was Dred Scott?
- Dred Scott was a slave of army doctor John Emerson. During his time as a slave Emerson took him to states that were free under the Missouri Compromise. He sued for his freedom saying since he traveled through free
- What did the court say?
- The court said he had no right to sue because he was property
- Which amendment did the court use in their decision?
- 5th amendment
- What did the court say about the Missouri Compromise, congress passing laws about making slavery laws and Northwest Ordinanace
- They were unconstitutional
- What did Lincoln and Douglas say about slavery?
- Lincoln strongly opposed slavery expansion in the west. Douglas however was a believer in Popular Sovereignty.
- What party did Lincoln go to national prominence as?
- What was the Freeport Doctrine?
- The Freeport Doctrine argued that since territorial legislature had the power to write local laws they could either support slavery or make it impossible to exist.
- What did slavveholders think of the doctrine?
- Slaveholders had always supported his pro slavery and popular sovereignty however many pro-slavery southerners stopped supporting him because they felt betrayed by the doctronie.
- What did John Brown hope to accomplish by capturing the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia?
- John Brown hoped to begin a slave rebellion in Virginia and throughout the south. On October 16, 1859, John Brown and about 20 followers captured the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
- Who was John Brown?
- John Brown was a radical abolitionist who in 1856 had previously led seven other men to murder pro-slavery settlers in the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas in 1856.
- How did some northern abolitionists react to John Brown’s plan to begin a slave uprising in the South?
- Some Northern abolitionists gave money to Brown to carry out his plan at Harper’s Ferry. After his arrest, other abolitionists viewed Brown as a hero who was justly fighting for the freedom of enslaved people. Most moderate northerners condemner Brown’s actions.
- How did most southerners view John Brown’s Raid?
- Most southerners were angry at the support Brown received both before and after the attack on Harper’s ferry. The sympathy that many northerners expressed toward Brown deeply angered many southerners.
- How many political parties and candidates were involved in the Presidential Election of 1860?
- There were 3 parties and 4 candidates. Democrats split apart, nominating Stephen Douglas. Republicans nominated Abe Lincoln
- Who won the election? What states did they win?
- Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 winning only free states , no slave states
- What did soutehn states feel?
- Southerners felt betrayed because they had lost their voice in the government
- Define Secession
- To make a formal withdrawal of membership from an organization, state, or alliance. Secession: the withdrawal from the Union of 11 Southern States in 1860-1861 that led to the formation of the Confederacy and the beginning of the civil war.
- What was the first state to seceed?
- South Carolina
- Why did the southerners justify secession?
- Southerners justified the legality of secession by pointing out the idea of states’ sovereignty. The original 13 states had existed separately before they joined together to form the United States. The states then drafted and approved the U.S. Constitution. Because the states had once been independent, southerners argued, each state had the right to withdraw its allegiance to the Constitution if its citizens voted to do so. Many southerners wanted to leave the Union because of their loyalty to the South and to the system of slavery. Southerners feared that their social and economic well-being would be threatened under Lincoln, who disapproved of slavery. In addition, their loyalty to the union had been weakened by years being criticized in the national debate over slavery.
- Why did northerners justify secesion?
- Many southerners saw secession as a challenge to the basic principles of the Constitution. They argued that the Constitution bound all the states together by mutual consent, meaning the states had voluntarily recognized the Constitution as the supreme law of the land. The states had also agreed to accept not only Federalism-the sharing of power by the national and state governments-but also the national government’s power to perform certain functions.
- Explain what caused the demand for cotton throughout the world.
- cotton was cheap and it was used a lot in europe and northern ohio
- Explain why growing and selling cotton proved difficult for southern farmers.
- it was tough to grow and the seeds were very difficult to pick out
- Who created the cotton gin? How did the cotton gin work?
- Eli Whitney created the Cotton Gin. The cotton Gin picked seeds out of cotton
- What factors created the need for the cotton gin?
- The increasing demand for cotton and the diffuculty of picking out the seeds
- How did the North benefit from the invention of the cotton gin?
- They had the ability to make more clothes and texttiles
- How did the cotton affect the South’s growth and development?
- With more exporting it made more money and profit for the south
- _______ is the process by which voters can vote directly on an issue
- Popular soverniehgty
- ____ is the act of formally withdrawing from a nation
- Speaker of the House ___________ created the Missouri Compromise.
- Henry Clay
- The agreement that ended the Mexican War in 1848 was the _______
- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
- The Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854 canceled the __________
- Missouri Compromise
- Senator ___________ created the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
- Stephan A. Douglas
- _____________ created the Compromise of 1850.
- Henry Clay
- ___________ party was established to prevent the spread of slavery into the Western territories of the United States.
- Republican Party
- ________ won the Presidential Election of 1860
- Abraham Lincoln
- __________ was the 1st state to seceed from the union.
- South Carolina
- The Supreme Court used the ________ Amendment for their ruling of the Dred Scot case, declaring they were property.
- _______ is the American History term for taking control of a territory.
- Although tobacco, rice, and indigo were major crops in the early south, cotton was the major crop by the mid 1800’s. (T or F)
- The south became known as the Cotton Kingdom because many textile mills in the region made cotton cloth. (T or F)
- False, they were known as the Cotton Kingdom because they grew and exported a large amount of cotton.
- Textile mills in the northern United States and in England were important customers for southern cotton farmers. (T of F)
- The growth of cotton farming created a Cotton Belt in the Lower south and brought new states in the union (T of F)
- The Missouri Compromised limited slavery south of 36 30’ north latitude in the Louisiana Purchase. (T or F)
- False, it limited slavery North of 36º 30' North Latitude
- Land, nationalism, religion, and democracy were all reasons that Americans believed in manifest destiny. (T of F)
- Manifest destiny called for the United States to stop westward expansion at the Rocky Mountains. (T or F)
- Manifest Dynasty was the belief that the US could conquer all of North America
- The reverend Henry Ward Beecher was the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. (T of F)
- False, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin
- In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act gave settlers the right to decide whether Kansas and Nebraska would become states. (T of F)
- According to the Compromise of 1850, slavery was banned in territories that were part of the Mexican Cession
- False, slavery was banned in California, however the other states from the Mexican Cession would use Popular Soverniegty to decide
- Because of the Fugitive Slave Act, captured slaves were sent to Africa. (T or F)
- False, they were sent to Canada
- The cotton gin was a machine for weaving cotton thread into cloth. (T of F)
- false, it was a machine for separating seeds from the cotton
- Uncle Tom’s Cabin strongly effected many northerners because of its portrayal of the cruelties of slavery, particularly the break up of slave families. (T or F)
- Uncle Tom’s Cabin influenced many readers to object to slavery because of its emotional images and because it appealed to individual senses of right and wrong. (T or F)
- The land Ordinance of 1785 divided up the Northwest Territory into
- C. Townships
- According to the Northwest Ordinance
a. Land in the Northwest Territory would be surveyed and sold in 640 acre sections
b. The Northwest territories was to be divided into districts
c. Congress would appoint a governor
d. 5000 voters
- D, 5000 voters lived in a district they could elect a legislature
- The Northwest Ordinance
a. provided that when 60,000 free people lived in a district, it could become a state.
b. Encouraged settlement of the Northwest Territory by establishing a system for a state of lands.
c. Helped strengthen the nat
- A, provided that when 60,000 free people livved in a district, it could become a free state
- The schools of the Northwest Territory were
a. supported by a section of land in each township
b. encouraged by the government
c. located in its neighboring states
d. provided for because Congress believed they were important to democ
- A, supported by a section of land in each township
- The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
a. Freed all slaves within the northwest territory
b. Prohibited slavery in the northwest territory
c. Allowed slavery in the northwest territory
d. Did not mention slavery
- B, Prohibited Slavery in the northwest territories
- List the 5 states created by the Northwest Ordinance
- Ohio, Michagin, Illionis, Wisconsin, Indiana
- Which of the following did farmers not do to increase cotton production?
a. increase the use of slave labor
b. expand cotton farming westward
c. decrease the use of slave labor
d. develop new, hardier types of cotton
- C, decrease the use of slave labor
- Which one of the following is not true regarding cotton gin?
a. it reduced the amount of labor involved in cleaning cotton
b. it reduced the demand for slave labor
c. it helped make the south increasingly dependent on cotton
d. it mad
- C, it helped make the south increasingly dependent on cotton
- Which one of the following is not true regarding the 1820 Missouri Compromise
a. It allowed Missouri to join the United States as a slave state
b. It outlawed slavery in the Louisiana Perchase north of the 36 30’ N latitude
c. It allowed
- C, it allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a free state
- The vast territory gained by the United States at the end of the Mexican War was called the
a. Mexican Cession
b. Gadsden Purchase
c. Adams-Onis Treaty
d. Guadalupe Hidalgo
- A, the Mexican Secession
- In 1853, the United States paid Mexico $10 million for a strip of land in southern New Mexico and Arizona known as the
a. Mexican Cession
b. Mexican Purchase
c. Adam-Onis Treaty
d. Gadsden Purchase
- D, Gadsen Purchase
- 39. The act that allowed California the enter the Union as a free state was part of
a. Wilmot Provisco
b. The Missouri Compromise
c. The Compromise of 1850
d. The Kansas-Nebraska act
- C, The compromise of 1850
- The fugitive Slave Act required that
a. escaped slaves are given their freedom
b. anyone helping an escaped slave be fines or imprisoned
c. escaped slaves are taken to Canada
d. slave catcher be given a reward for their services
- B, anyone helping a slave be fined or imprisoned
- In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme court states that the right to own property would be endangered by
a. a ban on slavery in the territories
b. the Fugitive Slave Act
c. allowing slavery to spread
d. allowing California to ente
- A, a ban on slavery in the territories
- What was the main reason Stephen A Douglas wanted Kansas and Nebraska organized into territories
a. he wanted to stop the spread of slavery
b. he wanted to make it easier to build a transcontinental railroad
c. he wanted to spread slavery
- B, he wanted to make it easier to build a transcontinental railroad
- The compromise of 1850 appealed to the southern states by
a. admitting California as a free state and banning the slave trade in the District of Columbia
b. admitting California as a slave state and adopting a stricter fugitive slave law
- C, allowing new territories to decide the slavery issue for themselves and adopting a stricter fugitive law
- One part of the Compromise of 1850 that please the North was
a. the legalization of slavery in the District of Columbia
b. a stricter fugitive slave law
c. the admission of California as a free state
d. the use of popular sovereignty
- C, the admission of California as a free state
- Southerners argued that secession was legal because of the idea of
a. popular sovereignty
b. states’ rights
d. freedom of choice
- B, states rights
- The Freeport doctrine argued that
a. slavery should be illegal in all territories because of the fifth amendment
b. slavery should be legal in all territories because of the fifth amendment
c. the Dred Scott decision did not apply to Afri
- D, territorial governments could exclude slavery by not writing laws to regulate
- Abraham Lincoln became president in 1860 by
a. winning every state
b. selecting Stephen Douglas as his running mate
c. carrying only the northern states
d. running as in Independent, not as a Democratic or Republican
- C, carrying only the northern states
- Define manifest destiny. List and explain the four reasons Americans believed in manifest destiny.
- Manifest Dynasty was the phrase used to describe American's feeling that the entire North American Continent can belong to the United States. The four reasons were Nationalism (they thought American's were superior), Democracy (freedom and democracy as a superior system worthy of spreading), Religion (bringing Christianity and “civilization” to American Indians), and Land acquisition and development (getting more land for agricultural use)
- How did the North benefit form the inventor of the cotton gin? Ho did the South benefit from the invention of the cotton gin?
- The North benifited because they got Cotton for a cheaper price which helped them with textiles and clothing which helped to make a profit. The south also made a profit from the selling of the cotton
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