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Glossary of American Cultures, 9th grade

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SUBSIDY
Grants of money to assist a company.
BOOMTOWN
Towns that sprang up wherever people found gold or silver. Very rapid growth.
GHOST TOWN
Empty towns where no one lived after miners exhausted the veins of ore and moved on.
OPEN RANGE
The broad grassland of the West.
COW TOWN
Kansas railroad centers named this because their main business was to ship cattle.
HOMESTEADER
Persons granted land under the Homestead Act. They had to improve the land on which they lived and live on it for five years.
RESERVATION
Special lands set aside just for Native Americans.
HEAVY INDUSTRY
An industry that produces materials such as coal, iron or steel.
PATENT
Licenses protecting people's rights to make, sell or use their inventions.
ENTREPRENEUR
The leaders of "big business" who took risks to start new businesses.
CORPORATION
A business in which investors own shares.
CAPITAL
The money needed to start and run a business.
MONOPOLY
This is when one company gains control over an industry. (Rockefeller's Standard Oil)
LAISSEZ-FAIRE
A "hands-off" policy. In this chapter it means that government had a hands off attitude toward big business.
TENEMENT
Overcrowded apartment buildings.
NATIONALIZE
When government takes over certain areas of life, like public transportation or communication.
GRADUATED INCOME TAX
A federal tax pushed for by the Populists that required wealthy people to pay a higher percentage of their income than poorer people.
GOLD STANDARD
The government did not print paper dollars unless it had enough gold to back each paper bill. This limited the amount of paper money that there was.

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