Glossary of African American History

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It is an international movement that has as its goal the unity of Africans and the elimination of colonialism and white supremacy. Marcus Garvey used this for his movement to return to Africa.
Harlem Renaissance
African-American literary and artistic movement of the 1920s and 1930s centered in New York City's Harlem district.
Marcus Garvey
He was a Jamaican who moved to the United States in 1916. He created the UNIA for the U.S. during the Postwar cultural discontent. He continued on the line of Black Nationalism.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association. A Black Nationalist movement with Marcua Garvey as the leader. It was a Sepratist movement. The group advocated Black Pride and Black Ancestry.
Postwar America and African- Americans
After the war African-Americans experience worse conditions of racism. Resugence of the Ku Klux Klan and nationwide lynchings. Some African-Americans were lynched in their uniforms.
W.E.B. DuBois / Closing Ranks
A term DuBois used during WWI to encourage black soldiers to fight against the enemies of democracy, and democracy will be shared when they return home.
The Great Migration
From the Rural South to Urban North. During WWI several blacks migrated to the North looking for economic opportunity.
369th Infantry
Needham Roberts and Henry Johnson given French highest medal of honor. An African-American infantry that earned the French Cross medal for serving on the front line in France for 191 days under fire. They weren't recognized by the United States.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Believed in accomidationism. It is a civil rights organization that brought lawsuits against discriminatory practices, like lynchings.
Booker T. Washington
He was an African-American educator and author. He was the President of the Tuskegee University, and he was a believer of gradualism.
W.E.B. DuBois
Political activist for African-Americans. He helped found the Niagra Movement. He promoted militancy as a way to rid racism.
Niagra Movement
A group of 32 African-American men led by W.E.B. DuBois, who called for civil liberties, an end to discrimination, and recignition of brotherhood. They had to meet on the Canadian side, since no American hotel would take them because of color. It eventually turned into the NAACP.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Court case that involved Louisiana's segregated train cars. The U.S. Supreme Court decision supported the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted "seperate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
Social Darwinism
Theory derived from Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. Used the concept of "survival of the fittest" to justify class distinctions and poverty.
Mob attacks on blacks, ececution without the due process of the law. Blacks were hanged by mobs of whites.

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