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Glossary of Advanced Bio

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Passive Transport
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without any input of energy
Active Transport
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient,w/ input of energy
Pinocytosis
Cellular"drinking";type of endocytosis=cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membraneous vessles
receptor-mediated endocytosis
Movement of specific molecules into cell by inward budding of membranous Vesicles; V's contain proteins w/ receptor sites specific to molecules taken in.
sodium-potassium pump
Membrane protein=transports soduim ions out of + potassium ions into a cell against their gradients. Powered by ATP.
saturated
fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain max # hydrogens and no double covalent bonds. Solidify @ room temp.
diffusion
Spontaneous movement of particles of any kind from where they are more concentrated to less conc.
facilitated diffusion
Passage of a substance across biological membrane down its conc. gradient, aided by transport proteins
phagocytosis
Cellular"eating";endocytosis where cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells into its membrane
Equilibrium
state of a chemical reaction;forward and reverse reactions occur @ equal rates=concentration of reactants and products doesnt change w/ time.
Hypertonic
Having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions
Semiermeability
Partially permeable.
tonicity
the osmotic pressure of a solution
isotonic
Having the same concentration of solutes
supersaturated
to be more highly concentrated than is normally possible under given conditions of temperature and pressure
osmosis
Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.
endocytosis
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
osmoregulation
Maintenance of an optimal, constant osmotic pressure in the body of a living organism.
hypotonic
Having the lower osmotic pressure of two fluids
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
filtration
The process of passing a liquid through a filter.
exocytosis
A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane.
crenation
A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, undergo shrinkage and acquire a notched or scalloped surface.
Concentration gradient
increase or decrease in the density of a chemnical substance in an area. When gradient exists, substances move from more to less
Lipid Bilayer
A double-layer of amphipathic lipid molecules arranged w/ their nonpolar hydrocarbon tails facing inward. the plasma membranes of animal cells are formed mainly from phospholipid bilayers.
Ion channel
A protein imbedded in a cell membrane that serves as a crossing point for the regulated tranfer of a specific ion or group of ions across the membrane.
channel protein
A protein embedded in the cell membrane which is part of a structure that determines what particle sizes and/or charges are allowed to diffuse into the cell.
signal transduction
The biochemical events that conduct the signal of a hormone or growth factor from the cell exterior, through the cell membrane, and into the cytoplasm. This involves a number of molecules, including receptors, proteins, and messengers.
carrier protein
A protein which transports specific substances through the cell membrane in which it is embedded and into the cell
transport protein
A protein that transports a molecule within a cell or within a biological fluid
receptor protein
A substance that lets a cell recognize a chemical messenger

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