Glossary of Adult Health Nursing ch 1
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- What are characteristics of a protein?
- Proteins can be re-used over and over again (enzymes), Highly specific (generally works with a particular molecule), breaks down and put together a molecule.
- What is a protein?
- A colorless, odorless, tasteless, and gaseous compound denoting chemicals containing carbon.
- Why is RNA important?
- A long single stranded chain used for transferring DNA information.
- What is DNA?
- A chemical primarily found in the nucleus that carries the instructions for making all the structures and materials the body needs to function.
- What is teh normal range for potassium?
- 3.5-5 mEq/ L
- What are 3 types of passive transport?
- Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis
- what is an actuve transport?
- pumping of molecules against a concentration gradient with the help of ATP.
- What is ATP? Adenosine triphosphate
- chemical bonds of stored energy that help speed up chemical reactions.
- Name 3 tyoes of active transport?
- cotransport, endocytosis, ionic pump
- endocytosis consists of what 3 types of transports?
- phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis
- Concentrations: what is isotonic
- Body fluids
- more than body fluids. ex. cells shrink, .3 NaCl
- less than body fluids, causes cell to explode, .45 NaCl
- what is a miliequivalent?
- It measures chemical activity or chemical combining with an ion.
- Swollem cells are called?
- Shrunken cells are called?
- Normal cells are called?
- osmotic equilibrium
- What are electrolytes?
- develop tiny electrical charges when they dissolve in water and break up into particles known as ions
- Ions develope a ..?
- positive or negative charge
- Cations have a __ charge?
- anions have a __ charge?
- Summarize sodium?
- most abundant electrolyte in the body. 134 - 142 mEq/L noram range. found in extracellular fluid. Regulates water balance, increases cell membrane permeability.
- What is HYPOnatremia?
- a less than normal concentration of sodium in the blood. Loss of sodium. Water is now retained in the body. Cells start to swell. Potassium imbalance is accompanied.
- what is HYPERnatremia
- greater than normal concentration of sodium in the blood. causes cellular dehydration and interuption in cellular process.
- Summarize potassium?
- normal range is 3.5- 5 mEq/L. Main function is to regulate water and electrolyte content.Promotes transmission of nerve impulses and skeletal muscle function.
- What is HYPOkalemia?
- (k+) a decrease in the body's potassium to a level below 3.5. Causes loss of renal excretion. Prolonged vomitting or GI suctioning may cause this.
- what is HYPERkalemia?
- increase in the body's potassium level above a 5 mEq/L. This is NOT common. Shock accompanies this damage.
- What can cause HYPERkalemia?
- Too much potassium. exessive salt intake, pottasium supplements, chemotherapy, potassiu diuretcs.
- Summarize chloride?
- (Cl-) 96-105 mEq/L. Chief anion.Necessary for the formation of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Regulation of acid base balance.
- What is HYPOchloremia?
- Occurs when sodium is lost. Sodium chloride paired. Causes are prolonged vomitting and prolonged NG tube.
- what is HYPERchloremia?
- When biocarbonate levels fall. No specific signs.
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